International guidelines regarding the role of IVIG in the management of Rh- and ABO-mediated haemolytic disease of the newborn
Lieberman L, Lopriore E, Baker JM, Bercovitz RS, Christensen RD, Crighton G, Delaney M, Goel R, Hendrickson JE, Keir A, et al
British journal of haematology. 2022
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Haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can be associated with significant morbidity. Prompt treatment with intensive phototherapy (PT) and exchange transfusions (ETs) can dramatically improve outcomes. ET is invasive and associated with risks. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be an alternative therapy to prevent use of ET. An international panel of experts was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of IVIG to reduce the need for ETs, improve neurocognitive outcomes, reduce bilirubin level, reduce the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and severity of anaemia, and/or reduce duration of hospitalization for neonates with Rh or ABO-mediated HDN. We used a systematic approach to search and review the literature and then develop recommendations from published data. These recommendations conclude that IVIG should not be routinely used to treat Rh or ABO antibody-mediated HDN. In situations where hyperbilirubinaemia is severe (and ET is imminent), or when ET is not readily available, the role of IVIG is unclear. High-quality studies are urgently needed to assess the optimal use of IVIG in patients with HDN.
Platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass not changed by two different doses of aprotinin
Santamaria A, Mateo J, Muniz-Diaz E, Oliver A, Murillo J, Litvan H, Souto JC, Fontcuberta J
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Bleeding is one of the major complications of cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) during cardiac surgery. A platelet function defect seems to be the main cause of the hemostatic problems associated with CBP. Controversial results have been reported concerning the possible protective mechanism of action of aprotinin on platelets. DESIGN AND METHODS In this study we investigated the effect of two different dosages of aprotinin (high and pump-prime-only dose) on platelet reactivity in vitro and adhesion, activation and aggregation receptors on the platelet surface. RESULTS The results obtained from 53 patients undergoing CBP showed a significantly deficient platelet aggregation in response to agonist in all groups without differences between aprotinin treated or not treated patients. No changes in platelet surface expression of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa, GPIb, GPIV and P-selectin, were observed during CBP between patients treated with aprotinin or not. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that inadequate platelet function induced by CBP is not a defect intrinsic to the platelet. We conclude that the hemostatic effect of aprotinin, regardless of the dose employed, is not mediated by protection of platelet function.
Aprotinin versus desmopressin for patients undergoing operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. A double-blind placebo-controlled study
Casas JI, Zuazu-Jausoro I, Mateo J, Oliver A, Litvan H, Muniz-Diaz E, Aris A, Caralps JM, Fontcuberta J
Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery. 1995;110((4, Pt 1):):1107-17.
BACKGROUND Aprotinin reduces blood loss in operations done with cardiopulmonary bypass, whereas the use of desmopressin remains controversial. We compared aprotinin, desmopressin, and placebo in a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate bleeding and transfusion requirements. METHODS AND RESULTS One hundred forty-nine patients (48 received aprotinin, 50 desmopressin, 51 placebo) were included. Blood loss and transfusion requirements were recorded and levels of Factor VIII coagulant activity, von Willebrand's factor, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and D-dimer were measured. Overall blood loss was 195 +/- 146 ml/m2 in the aprotinin group, 400 +/- 192 ml/m2 in the desmopressin group, and 489 +/- 361 ml/m2 in the placebo group (95% confidence intervals: difference between desmopressin and aprotinin 98 to 312 ml/m2, p < 0.001; difference between placebo and aprotinin 190 to 398 ml/m2, p < 0.001). Twenty-six percent of patients treated with aprotinin, 66% of those treated with desmopressin, and 56% of those treated with placebo were given transfusion (95% confidence intervals: difference between aprotinin versus placebo plus desmopressin 51% to 71%, p < 0.001). Fibrinolytic activation throughout cardiopulmonary bypass was markedly higher with placebo or desmopressin administration. D-dimer level correlated with overall blood loss in patients receiving desmopressin or placebo, but not in those receiving aprotinin. CONCLUSION Aprotinin administration reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiopulmonary bypass. This benefit may be explained by a lower activation of fibrinolysis.