Measuring Factor XIII Inhibitors in Patients with Factor XIII Deficiency: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Practices in Japan
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(6)
Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare but serious coagulopathy. FXIII is critical in blood coagulation, and FXIII deficiencies can lead to uncontrolled or spontaneous bleeding. FXIII deficiencies can be congenital or acquired; acquired FXIII deficiency can be categorized as autoimmune and non-autoimmune. Immunological tests to measure FXIII inhibitors are required to diagnose acquired FXIII deficiency; however, appropriate test facilities are limited, which increases the turnaround time of these tests. In the case of critical bleeding, delayed test results may worsen prognosis due to delayed treatment. Here, we report a case of acquired FXIII deficiency, followed by a review of FXIII deficiency cases in Japan. We performed a systematic review to investigate the present conditions of the diagnosis and treatment of FXIII deficiency, including the measurement of FXIII inhibitors in Japan. FXIII inhibitor testing was only performed in 29.7 of acquired FXIII deficiency cases. Clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics were often involved in medical treatment at the time of onset. Therefore, it is important for doctors in clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics to consider FXIII deficiency and perform FXIII inhibitor testing when examining patients with prolonged bleeding of unknown cause or persistent bleeding after trauma.
Efficacy and safety associated with the infusion speed of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of Kawasaki disease: a randomized controlled trial
Pediatric rheumatology online journal. 2021;19(1):107
BACKGROUND High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the mainstay of treatment for Kawasaki disease (KD). Usually, 2 g/kg of IVIG is administered over 10-24 h, depending on the institution or physician, but the association between infusion speed and effectiveness has not been reported. In this study, we evaluated the differences in efficacy and safety between two different IVIG administration speeds. METHODS This was a multicenter, unblinded, randomized controlled study. Patients newly diagnosed with KD were randomized into two groups: one who received IVIG over 12 h (12H group, double speed), and one that received IVIG over 24 h (24H group, reference speed). The endpoints included the duration of fever, incidence of coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) and of adverse events. Laboratory data were evaluated before and after IVIG administration. RESULTS A total of 39 patients were enrolled. There was no difference between groups in fever duration after the initiation of IVIG (21 h vs. 21.5 h, p = 0.325), and no patient experienced CAAs. Two adverse events were observed in the 12H group (elevation of aspartate aminotransferase and vomiting), however no severe adverse events requiring treatments or extension of hospital stay were observed in either group. After initial IVIG administration, the change ratio of inflammatory markers, such as white blood cell counts, neutrophils, C-reactive protein, and albumin, did not show significant differences between the two groups. On the other hand, a greater increase of serum immunoglobulin G from its baseline level was observed in the 24H group compared to the 12H group (3037 ± 648 mg/dl vs. 2414 ± 248 mg/dl, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION The efficacy and safety of IVIG administered over 12 h (double speed) were similar to those administered over 24 h (reference speed). TRIAL REGISTRATION University Hospital Medical Information Network ( UMIN000014665 ). Registered 27 July 2014 - Prospectively registered, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000017058.