Sex Differences in Blood Pressure-Lowering Therapy and Outcomes Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Results From ATACH-2
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Evidence regarding sex differences in clinical outcomes and treatment effect following intracerebral hemorrhage is limited. Using the ATACH-2 trial (Antihypertensive Treatment in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-2) data, we explored whether sex disparities exist in outcomes and response to intensive blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy. METHODS Eligible intracerebral hemorrhage subjects were randomly assigned to intensive (target systolic BP, 110-139 mm Hg) or standard (140-179 mm Hg) BP-lowering therapy within 4.5 hours after onset. Relative risk of death or disability corresponding to the modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6 was calculated, and interaction between sex and treatment was explored. RESULTS In total, 380 women and 620 men were included. Women were older, more prescribed antihypertensive drugs before onset, and had more lobar intracerebral hemorrhage than men. Hematoma expansion was observed less in women. After multivariable adjustment, the relative risk of death or disability in women was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02-1.37, P=0.023). The relative risk of death or disability between intensive versus standard BP-lowering therapy was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-1.13) in women versus 1.13 (95% CI, 0.92-1.39) in men (P for interaction=0.11), with inconclusive Gail-Simmon test (P=0.16). CONCLUSIONS Women had a higher risk of death or disability following intracerebral hemorrhage. The benefit of intensive BP-lowering therapy in women is inconclusive, consistent with the overall results of ATACH-2. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01176565.
Regional differences in the response to acute blood pressure lowering after cerebral hemorrhage
OBJECTIVE To compare the impact of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering right after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on clinical and hematoma outcomes among patients from different geographic locations, we performed a prespecified sub-analysis of the randomized, multi-national, two-group, open-label trial to determine the efficacy of rapidly lowering BP in hyperacute ICH (ATACH-2), involving 537 patients from East Asia and 463 recruited outside of Asia. METHODS Eligible patients were randomly assigned to a systolic BP (SBP) target of 110-139 mmHg (intensive treatment) or 140-179 mmHg (standard treatment). Pre-defined outcomes were: poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6 at 90 days), death within 90 days, hematoma expansion at 24 hours; and cardio-renal adverse events within 7 days. RESULTS Poor functional outcomes (32.0% versus 45.9%), death (1.9% versus 13.3%), and cardio-renal adverse events (3.9% versus 11.2%) occurred significantly less in patients from Asia than those outside of Asia. The treatment-by-cohort interaction was not significant for any outcomes. Only patients from Asia showed a lower incidence of hematoma expansion with intensive treatment (adjusted RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.83). Both Asian (3.53, 1.28-9.64) and non-Asian cohorts (1.71, 1.00-2.93) showed a higher incidence of cardio-renal adverse events with intensive treatment. CONCLUSIONS Poor functional outcomes and death 90 days after ICH were less common in patients from East Asia than those outside of Asia. Hematoma expansion, a potential predictor for poor clinical outcome, was attenuated by intensive BP lowering only in the Asian cohort. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER NCT01176565. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE This study provides Class II evidence that, for patients from East Asia with intracerebral hemorrhage, intensive blood pressure lowering significantly reduces the risk of hematoma expansion.
Deferoxamine mesylate in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (i-DEF): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial
The Lancet. Neurology. 2019
BACKGROUND Iron from haemolysed blood is implicated in secondary injury after intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to assess the safety of the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and to establish whether the drug merits investigation in a phase 3 trial. METHODS We did a multicentre, futility-design, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial at 40 hospitals in Canada and the USA. Adults aged 18-80 years with primary, spontaneous, supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive deferoxamine mesylate (32 mg/kg per day) or placebo (saline) infusions for 3 consecutive days within 24 h of haemorrhage onset. Randomisation was done via a web-based trial-management system centrally in real time, and treatment allocation was concealed from both participants and investigators. The primary outcome was good clinical outcome, which was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at day 90. We did a futility analysis: if the 90% upper confidence bound of the absolute risk difference between the two groups in the proportion of participants with a good clinical outcome was less than 12% in favour of deferoxamine mesylate, then to move to a phase 3 efficacy trial would be futile. Primary outcome and safety data were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, comprising only participants in whom the study infusions were initiated. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02175225, and is completed. FINDINGS We recruited 294 participants between Nov 23, 2014, and Nov 10, 2017. The modified intention-to-treat population consisted of 144 patients assigned to the deferoxamine mesylate group and 147 assigned to the placebo group. At day 90, among patients with available data for the primary outcome, 48 (34%) of 140 participants in the deferoxamine mesylate group, and 47 (33%) of 143 patients in the placebo group, had modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-2 (adjusted absolute risk difference 0.6% [90% upper confidence bound 6.8%]). By day 90, 70 serious adverse events were reported in 39 (27%) of 144 patients in the deferoxamine mesylate group, and 78 serious adverse events were reported in 49 (33%) of 147 patients in the placebo group. Ten (7%) participants in the deferoxamine mesylate and 11 (7%) in the placebo group died. None of the deaths were judged to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION Deferoxamine mesylate was safe. However, the primary result showed that further study of the efficacy of deferoxamine mesylate with anticipation that the drug would significantly improve the chance of good clinical outcome (ie, mRS score of 0-2) at day 90 would be futile. FUNDING US National Institutes of Health and US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke) trials: analysis of the combined data From parts 1 and 2
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2016;47((9):):2355-9
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke) part 1 and 2 trials evaluated whether 25% human serum albumin improves clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke above and beyond standard of care using similar protocols. The part 1 trial ended prematurely because of safety concerns, and the part 2 trial terminated early because of futility of finding a statistically significant effect of albumin over saline (control) administration. We combine the subject-level data of the part 1 and 2 trials to reevaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes with the larger sample size. METHODS The combined data analyses closely follow those conducted in the part 2 trial. The primary outcome is the composite of the modified Rankin Scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale defined as a composite of modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 1 and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0 to 1 at 90 days from randomization. The unadjusted analyses use a simple Chi-square test, and those adjusting for baseline covariates use a generalized linear model with log link (to obtain relative risks). RESULTS The participant characteristics at baseline were generally similar between the treatment groups and between the trials; however, thrombolysis use was greater in part 2 (84% versus 75%), and the upper age limit imposed in part 2 resulted in a younger sample (mean age in part 1 was 69 versus 64 in part 2). In the combined sample, the proportions of good outcome in the 2 treatment groups were identical (41%). Similar results were observed in all secondary efficacy outcomes. Pulmonary edema was a consistent safety concern, with a 6-fold increase in the albumin arm (13%) compared with saline (2%; relative risk =7.76, 95% confidence interval 3.87-15.57). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with intravenous albumin 25% at 2 g/kg was not associated with improved outcome at 90 days and was associated with increased rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00235495.
Albumin administration in acute ischemic stroke: safety analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 multicenter trial
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 2015;10((9)):e0131390.
BACKGROUND Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. METHODS Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18-83 and a baseline NIHSS > 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. RESULTS Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01-5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3-26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495.
High-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (ALIAS) Part 2: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled trial
Lancet Neurology. 2013;12((11):):1049-58.
BACKGROUND In animal models of ischaemic stroke, 25% albumin reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioural outcome. In a pilot clinical trial, albumin doses as high as 2 g/kg were safely tolerated. We aimed to assess whether albumin given within 5 h of the onset of acute ischaemic stroke increased the proportion of patients with a favourable outcome. METHODS We did a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3, placebo-controlled trial between Feb 27, 2009, and Sept 10, 2012, at 69 sites in the USA, 13 sites in Canada, two sites in Finland, and five sites in Israel. Patients aged 18-83 years with ischaemic (ie, non-haemorrhagic) stroke with a baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score of 6 or more who could be treated within 5 h of onset were randomly assigned (1:1), via a central web-based randomisation process with a biased coin minimisation approach, to receive 25% albumin (2 g [8 mL] per kg; maximum dose 750 mL) or the equivalent volume of isotonic saline. All study personnel and participants were masked to the identity of the study drug. The primary endpoint was favourable outcome, defined as either a modified Rankin scale score of 0 or 1, or an NIHSS score of 0 or 1, or both, at 90 days. Analysis was by intention to treat. Thrombolytic therapies were permitted. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00235495. FINDINGS 422 participants were randomly assigned to receive albumin and 419 to receive saline. On Sept 12, 2012, the trial was stopped early for futility (n=841). The primary outcome did not differ between patients in the albumin group and those in the saline group (186 [44%] vs 185 [44%]; risk ratio 096, 95% CI 084-110, adjusted for baseline NIHSS score and thrombolysis stratum). Mild-to-moderate pulmonary oedema was more common in patients given albumin than in those given saline (54 [13%] of 412 vs 5 [1%] of 412 patients); symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 24 h was also more common in patients in the albumin group than in the placebo group (17 [4%] of 415 vs 7 [2%] of 414 patients). Although the rate of favourable outcome in patients given albumin remained consistent at 44-45% over the course of the trial, the cumulative rate of favourable outcome in patients given saline rose steadily from 31% to 44%. INTERPRETATION Our findings show no clinical benefit of 25% albumin in patients with ischaemic stroke; however, they should not discourage further efforts to identify effective strategies to protect the ischaemic brain, especially because of preclinical literature showing convincing proof-of-principle for the possibility of this outcome. FUNDING National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, US National Institutes of Health; and Baxter Healthcare Corporation. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The albumin in acute stroke (ALIAS) multicenter clinical trial: safety analysis of part 1 and rationale and design of part 2
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE enrollment in the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trial was suspended in late 2007 due to a safety concern. We present the safety data of that Trial (Part 1) and the rationale for the design of Part 2.METHODS ALIAS Part 1 was designed to assess whether 25% albumin (ALB) started within 5 hours of stroke onset would confer neuroprotection in subjects with acute ischemic stroke and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of >=6. Exclusion criteria included recent or current congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, or cardiac surgery. The study comprised 2 cohorts: subjects who received thrombolysis and those who did not, each with 1:1 randomization to ALB or placebo. The primary outcome was the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scales at 90 days. The intended sample size was 1800.RESULTS four hundred thirty-four subjects were enrolled, and 424 were used in the safety analysis (ALB 207, saline 217). There were 36 deaths within the first 30 days in the ALB group and 21 in the saline group. In contrast, death rates after 30 days were similar by treatment. Large strokes were the predominant cause of early death in both groups. In subjects >83 years of age, 90-day death rates were 2.3-fold higher with ALB than with saline (95% CI, 1.04 to 5.12). Similarly, 90-day deaths in subjects receiving excessive fluids were 2.10-fold greater with ALB than with saline (CI, 1.10 to 3.98).CONCLUSIONS The ALIAS Part 2 Trial, which started in early 2009, was modified as follows to enhance safety: upper age limit of 83 years; requirement for normal baseline serum troponin level; restriction of total intravenous fluids in the first 48 hours to <= 4200 mL; mandatory diuretic at 12 to 24 hours; and detailed site retraining. Because of insufficient nonthrombolysed subjects (22%) in Part 1, the 2-cohort design was eliminated. The Data Safety Monitoring Board has reviewed the safety data of Part 2 3 times and has approved continuation of the trial.
The Albumin in Acute Stroke Part 1 Trial: an exploratory efficacy analysis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Part 2 Trial is directly testing whether 2 g/kg of 25% human albumin (ALB) administered intravenously within 5 hours of ischemic stroke onset results in improved clinical outcome. Recruitment into Part 1 of the ALIAS Trial was halted for safety reasons. ALIAS Part 2 is a new, reformulated trial with more-stringent exclusion criteria. Our aim was to explore the efficacy of ALB in the ALIAS Part 1 data and to assess the statistical assumptions underlying the ALIAS Part 2 Trial.METHODS ALIAS is a multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial. Data on 434 subjects, comprising the ALIAS Part 1 subjects, were analyzed. We examined both the thrombolysis and nonthrombolysis cohorts combined and separately in a target populationby excluding subjects who would not have been eligible for the ALIAS Part 2 Trial; the latter comprised patients >83 years of age, those with elevated baseline troponin values, and those with in-hospital stroke. We examined the differences in the primary composite outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 1 and/or a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 0 to 1 at 90 days after randomization.RESULTS In the combined thrombolysis plus nonthrombolysis cohorts of the target population, 44.7% of subjects in the ALB group had a favorable outcome compared with 36.0% in the saline group (absolute effect size=8.7%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 19.5%). Among thrombolyzed subjects of the target population, 46.7% had a favorable outcome in the ALB group compared with 36.6% in the saline group (absolute effect size=10.1%; 95% CI, -2.0% to 20.0%).CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results from the ALIAS Part 1 suggest a trend toward a favorable primary outcome in subjects treated with ALB and support the validity of the statistical assumptions that underlie the ALIAS Part 2 Trial. The ALIAS Part 2 Trial will confirm or refute these results.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ALIAS. Unique identifier: NCT00235495.
The albumin in acute stroke trial (ALIAS); design and methodology
International Journal of Stroke : Official Journal of the International Stroke Society. 2007;2((3):):214-9.
UNLABELLED Stroke is a serious global illness. Human albumin has emerged as a putative therapy for ischaemic stroke based on strong evidence from animal models. Following confirmation of the safety and feasibility of high-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke in a pilot study, the Albumin in Acute Stroke trial, a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose albumin compared to saline control within 5 h of ischaemic stroke onset. METHODS The trial will enrol 1800 patients in two cohorts--a thrombolytic and a nonthrombolytic arm. High-dose (2 g/kg) human albumin will be administered in a 2-h straight intravenous infusion to ischaemic stroke patients, within 5 h of symptom onset. The primary outcome will be an NIH stroke scale score of 0-1 or a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1 at 90 days. Safety outcomes will include the incidence of congestive heart failure after study-drug administration. RESULTS Enrolment opened at 40 sites in August 2006; new sites continue to be added. Recruitment is ongoing and is projected to be completed by 2010. CONCLUSIONS The trial will continue through 2010. The study is proceeding as planned.
The ALIAS Pilot Trial: a dose-escalation and safety study of albumin therapy for acute ischemic stroke--I: Physiological responses and safety results
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2006;37((8):):2100-6.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In preclinical stroke models, high-dose human albumin confers robust neuroprotection. We investigated the safety and tolerability of this therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS The ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Stroke) Pilot Clinical Trial used a multiple-tier, open-label, dose-escalation design. Subjects with acute ischemic stroke (NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSS] of 6 or above) received a 2-hour infusion of 25% human albumin (ALB) beginning within 16 hours of stroke onset. Six successive ALB dose tiers were assessed ranging from 0. 34 to 2. 05 g/kg. Neurologic and cardiac function was sequentially monitored. At 3 months, the NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale, and Barthel Index were measured. RESULTS Eighty-two subjects (mean age, 65 years) received ALB at 7. 8+/-3. 4 hours after stroke onset (mean+/-standard deviation). Forty-two patients also received standard-of-care intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Vital signs were unaltered by ALB treatment. Dose-related increases in plasma albumin and mild hemodilution were maximal at 4 to 12 hours. Age-related plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels increased at 24 hours after ALB but did not predict cardiac adverse events. The sole ALB-related adverse event was mild or moderate pulmonary edema in 13. 4% of subjects, which was readily managed with diuretics. In the tPA-treated subgroup, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in only one of 42 subjects. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five percent human albumin in doses ranging up to 2. 05 g/kg was tolerated by patients with acute ischemic stroke without major dose-limiting complications. tPA therapy did not affect the safety profile of ALB. The companion article presents neurologic outcome data and efficacy analysis in these subjects.