Outcomes of Convalescent Plasma with Defined High versus Lower Neutralizing Antibody Titers against SARS-CoV-2 among Hospitalized Patients: CoronaVirus Inactivating Plasma (CoVIP) Study
Bartelt LA, Markmann AJ, Nelson B, Keys J, Root H, Henderson HI, Kuruc J, Baker C, Bhowmik DR, Hou YJ, et al
COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was an early and widely adopted putative therapy for severe COVID-19. Results from randomized control trials and observational studies have failed to demonstrate a clear therapeutic role for CCP for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Underlying these inconclusive findings is a broad heterogeneity in the concentrations of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) between different CCP donors. We conducted this study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of nAb titer-defined CCP in adults admitted to an academic referral hospital. Patients positive by a SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test and with symptoms for <10 days were eligible. Participants received either CCP with nAb titers of >1:640 (high-titer group) or ≥1:160 to 1:640 (standard-titer group) in addition to standard of care treatments. The primary clinical outcome was time to hospital discharge, with mortality and respiratory support evaluated as secondary outcomes. Adverse events were contrasted by CCP titer. Between 28 August and 4 December 2020, 316 participants were screened, and 55 received CCP, with 14 and 41 receiving high- versus standard-titer CCP, respectively. Time to hospital discharge was shorter among participants receiving high- versus standard-titer CCP, accounting for death as a competing event (hazard ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 3.58; Gray's P = 0.02). Severe adverse events (SAEs) (≥grade 3) occurred in 4 (29%) and 23 (56%) of participants receiving the high versus standard titer, respectively, by day 28 (risk ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.22; Fisher's P = 0.12). There were no observed treatment-related AEs. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT04524507). IMPORTANCE In this study, in a high-risk population of patients admitted for COVID-19, we found an earlier time to hospital discharge among participants receiving CCP with nAb titers of >1:640 compared with participants receiving CCP with a lower nAb titer and no CCP-related AEs. The significance of our research is in identifying a dose response of CCP and clinical outcomes based on nAb titer. Although limited by a small study size, these findings support further study of high-nAb-titer CCP defined as >1:640 in the treatment of COVID-19.
Lack of Efficacy and Safety of Eculizumab for Treatment of Antibody-Mediated Rejection Following Renal Transplantation
Heo S, Park Y, Lee N, Kim Y, Kim YN, Shin HS, Jung Y, Rim H, Rennke HG, Chandraker A
Transplantation proceedings. 2022
BACKGROUND We evaluated the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in comparison with plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in renal transplant recipients diagnosed with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). METHODS This was a multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized analysis. The patients were randomized by therapy type (eg, eculizumab infusions or standard of care [SOC]: plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin). The patients (ie, eculizumab arm: 7 patients, SOC arm: 4 patients) were evaluated for the continued presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and C4d (staining on biopsy), as well as histologic evidence, using repeat renal biopsy after treatment. RESULTS The allograft biopsies revealed that eculizumab did not prevent the progression to transplant glomerulopathy. Only 2 patients in the SOC arm experienced rejection reversal, and no graft losses occurred in either group. After AMR treatment, the DSA titers generally decreased compared to titers taken at the time of AMR diagnosis. There were no serious adverse effects in the eculizumab arm. CONCLUSIONS Eculizumab alone cannot treat AMR effectively and does not prevent acute AMR from progressing to chronic AMR or transplant glomerulopathy. However, it should be considered as a potential alternative therapy because it may be associated with decreased DSA levels.
Effect of flowable thrombin-containing collagen-based hemostatic matrix for preventing pancreatic fistula after pancreatectomy: A randomized clinical trial
Park Y, Ko JH, Kang DR, Lee JH, Hwang DW, Lee JH, Lee W, Kwon J, Park SN, Song KB, et al
Annals of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery. 2021;25(Suppl 1):S371
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a flowable hemostatic matrix, and their effect for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatectomy. METHODS This was a randomized, clinical, single-center, single-blind (participant), non-inferiority, phase IV, and parallel-group trial. The primary endpoint was the incidence of POPF. The secondary endpoints were risk factors for POPF, drain removal days, incidence of complication, 90-day mortality, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS This study evaluated a total of 54 patients, with 26 patients in the intervention group (flowable hemostatic matrix) and 27 patients in the control group (thrombin-coated collagen patch). POPF was more common in the control group than in the intervention group (59.3% vs. 30.8%, p = 0.037). Among participants who underwent distal pancreatectomy (DP), POPF (33.3% vs. 92.3%, p = 0.004) and clinically relevant POPF (8.3% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.027) were more common in the control group. A multivariate logistic regression model identified flowable hemostatic matrix use (p = 0.029) as an independent negative risk factor for POPF. CONCLUSIONS Flowable hemostatic matrix application is a simple, feasible, and effective method of preventing POPF after pancreatectomy, especially for patients with DP.
Effect of Flowable Thrombin-Containing Collagen-Based Hemostatic Matrix for Preventing Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Park Y, Ko JH, Kang DR, Lee JH, Hwang DW, Lee JH, Lee W, Kwon J, Park SN, Song KB, et al
Journal of clinical medicine. 2020;9(10)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a flowable hemostatic matrix, and their effects for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatectomy. METHODS This was a randomized, clinical, single-center, single-blind (participant), non-inferiority, phase IV, and parallel-group trial. The primary endpoint was the incidence of POPF. The secondary endpoints were risk factors for POPF, drain removal days, incidence of complication, 90-day mortality, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS This study evaluated a total of 53 patients, of whom 26 patients were in the intervention group (flowable hemostatic matrix) and 27 patients were in the control group (thrombin-coated collagen patch). POPF was more common in the control group than in the intervention group (59.3% vs. 30.8%, p = 0.037). Among participants who underwent distal pancreatectomy, POPF (33.3% vs. 92.3%, p = 0.004), and clinically relevant POPF (8.3% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.027) was more common in the control group. A multivariate logistic regression model identified flowable hemostatic matrix use as an independent negative risk factor for POPF, especially in cases of distal pancreatectomy (DP) (odds ratio 17.379, 95% confidential interval 1.453-207.870, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION Flowable hemostatic matrix application is a simple, feasible, and effective method of preventing POPF after pancreatectomy, especially for patients with DP. Non-inferiority was demonstrated in the efficacy of preventing POPF in the intervention group compared to the control group.
The Effect of Fibrinogen/Thrombin-Coated Collagen Patch (TachoSil((R))) Application in Pancreaticojejunostomy for Prevention of Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Kwon J, Shin SH, Lee S, Park G, Park Y, Lee SJ, Lee W, Song KB, Hwang DW, Kim SC, et al
World journal of surgery. 2019
BACKGROUND Fibrin sealants and topical glue have been studied to reduce the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) after pancreatico-enteric anastomosis, but a definitive innovation is still needed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of fibrin sealant patch applied to pancreatico-enteric anastomosis to reduce postoperative complications, including POPF. METHODS This study was a single-center, prospective, randomized, phase IV trial involving three pancreaticobiliary surgeons. The primary outcome was POPF; secondary outcomes included complications, drain removal days, hospital stay, readmission rate, and cost. Risk factors for POPF were identified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 124 patients were enrolled. Biochemical leakage (BL) or POPF occurred in 16 patients (25.8%) in the intervention group and 23 patients (37.1%) in the control group (no statistical significance). Clinically relevant POPF occurred in 4 patients (6.5%) in both the intervention and control groups (p = 1.000). Hospital stay (11.6 days vs. 12.1 days, p = 0.585) and drain removal days (5.7 days vs. 5.3 days, p = 0.281) were not statistically different between two groups. Complication rates were not different between the two groups (p = 0.506); nor were readmission rates (12.9% vs. 11.3%, p = 1.000) or cost ($13,549 vs. $15,038, p = 0.103). In multivariable analysis, age and soft pancreas texture were independent risk factors for BL or POPF in this study. Applying fibrin sealant patch is not a negative risk factor, but the p value may indicate a likelihood of reducing the incidence of BL (p = 0.084). CONCLUSIONS Fibrin sealant patches after pancreaticojejunostomy did not reduce the incidence of POPF or other postoperative complications. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03269955).
Effects of red-cell storage duration on patients undergoing cardiac surgery
Steiner ME, Ness PM, Assmann SF, Triulzi DJ, Sloan SR, Delaney M, Granger S, Bennett-Guerrero E, Blajchman MA, Scavo V, et al
New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372((15):):1419-29.
BACKGROUND Some observational studies have reported that transfusion of red-cell units that have been stored for more than 2 to 3 weeks is associated with serious, even fatal, adverse events. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery may be especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of transfusion.METHODS We conducted a randomized trial at multiple sites from 2010 to 2014. Participants 12 years of age or older who were undergoing complex cardiac surgery and were likely to undergo transfusion of red cells were randomly assigned to receive leukocyte-reduced red cells stored for 10 days or less (shorter-term storage group) or for 21 days or more (longer-term storage group) for all intraoperative and postoperative transfusions. The primary outcome was the change in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS; range, 0 to 24, with higher scores indicating more severe organ dysfunction) from the preoperative score to the highest composite score through day 7 or the time of death or discharge.RESULTS The median storage time of red-cell units provided to the 1098 participants who received red-cell transfusion was 7 days in the shorter-term storage group and 28 days in the longer-term storage group. The mean change in MODS was an increase of 8.5 and 8.7 points, respectively (95% confidence interval for the difference, -0.6 to 0.3; P=0.44). The 7-day mortality was 2.8% in the shorter-term storage group and 2.0% in the longer-term storage group (P=0.43); 28-day mortality was 4.4% and 5.3%, respectively (P=0.57). Adverse events did not differ significantly between groups except that hyperbilirubinemia was more common in the longer-term storage group.CONCLUSIONS The duration of red-cell storage was not associated with significant differences in the change in MODS. We did not find that the transfusion of red cells stored for 10 days or less was superior to the transfusion of red cells stored for 21 days or more among patients 12 years of age or older who were undergoing complex cardiac surgery. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; RECESS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991341.).
Infusions of fresh frozen plasma to the patients with a high-risk group for hepatic VOD associated with stem cell transplantation reduce its occurrence
Matsumoto M, Kawa K, Yagi H, Park Y, Takeshima Y, Kosaka Y,, et al.,
Blood. 2006;108((11):): Abstract No. 1502.