Recombinant activated factor VII safety in trauma patients: results from the CONTROL trial
The Journal of Trauma. 2011;71((1):):12-9.
BACKGROUND Safety data on recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, BagsvÃ¦rd, Denmark) in actively hemorrhaging trauma patients are limited. We present detailed safety data from a large multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study (the CONTROL trial). METHODS Data from 560 patients were analyzed. Subjects were monitored for adverse events (AEs) after rFVIIa or placebo administration. Incidences, timing, and presence of risk factors were reported by site investigators, supported by external study monitors and overseen by an independent Data Monitoring Committee. RESULTS There were no differences in overall mortality, organ system failure, or AEs, serious AEs, or medical events of special interest. Arterial and venous thromboembolic (TE) events and their risk factors were similar in both groups. The greatest risk factor for TE events was a chest injury requiring mechanical ventilation >3 days (86%). There were four site investigator-reported myocardial infarctions in the rFVIIa group of which only one met diagnostic criteria preestablished by the Data Monitoring Committee. There were no reported myocardial infarctions in the placebo group. Troponins were increased in 30% of all patients. The rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome was lower in the rFVIIa (3.0%) than in the placebo (7.2%) group (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS This represents the largest placebo-controlled dataset of rFVIIa use in trauma patients to date. In this prospective study of critically bleeding trauma patients, rFVIIa use was associated with an imbalance of investigator-reported Acute myocardial infarction/non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI/NSTEMI), but was not associated with an increased risk for other AEs, including TE complications.
Global differences in causes, management, and survival after severe trauma: the recombinant activated factor VII phase 3 trauma trial
The Journal of Trauma. 2010;69((2):):344-52.
BACKGROUND Little is known about international variation in mortality after severe trauma. This study examines variation in mortality, injury severity, and case management among countries from a recent prospective multinational trauma trial. METHODS This trauma trial was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicenter comparison of recombinant activated factor VII versus placebo in severely injured bleeding trauma patients. Differences in baseline patient characteristics, case management, and clinical outcomes were examined for the 11 countries recruiting most patients. Between-country differences in mortality were examined using regression analysis adjusting for case mix and case management differences. Global predictors of mortality were also identified using multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS Significant differences were observed between countries in unadjusted mortality rates at 24 hours (p = 0. 025) and 90 days (p < 0. 0001). When adjusting for differences in case mix and case management, the between country differences in mortality at 24 hours and 90 days remained significant. Consistent independent predictors of 24-hour, 24-hour to 90-day, and 90-day mortality were admission lactate >or=5 mmol/L (odds ratio: 9. 06, 3. 56, and 5. 39, respectively) and adherence to clinical management guidelines (odds ratio: 4. 92, 5. 90, and 3. 26, respectively). On average, the damage control surgery guideline was less well adhered to than the RBC transfusion and ventilator guidelines. There was statistically significant variation between countries with respect to adherence to the RBC transfusion guideline. CONCLUSIONS Considering international variation in mortality when designing or interpreting results from multinational trauma studies is important. Significant differences in mortality persisted between patients from different countries after case mix and case management adjustment. Adherence to clinical guidelines was associated with improved survival. Stratification, case mix adjustment, and use of guidelines on damage control surgery, transfusion, and ventilation may mitigate country-driven variation in mortality.
Results of the CONTROL trial: efficacy and safety of recombinant activated Factor VII in the management of refractory traumatic hemorrhage
The Journal of Trauma. 2010;69((3):):489-500.
BACKGROUND Traumatic coagulopathy contributes to early death by exsanguination and late death in multiple organ failure. Recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa, NovoSeven) is a procoagulant that might limit bleeding and improve trauma outcomes. METHODS We performed a phase 3 randomized clinical trial evaluating efficacy and safety of rFVIIa as an adjunct to direct hemostasis in major trauma. We studied 573 patients (481 blunt and 92 penetrating) who bled 4 to 8 red blood cell (RBC) units within 12 hours of injury and were still bleeding despite strict damage control resuscitation and operative management. Patients were assigned to rFVIIa (200 μg/kg initially; 100 μg/kg at 1 hour and 3 hours) or placebo. Intensive care unit management was standardized using evidence-based trauma bundleswith formal oversight of compliance. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Predefined secondary outcomes included blood products used. Safety was assessed through 90 days. Study powering was based on prior randomized controlled trials and large trauma center databases. RESULTS Enrollment was terminated at 573 of 1502 planned patients because of unexpected low mortality prompted by futility analysis (10. 8% vs. 27. 5% planned/predicted) and difficulties consenting and enrolling sicker patients. Mortality was 11. 0% (rFVIIa) versus 10. 7% (placebo) (p = 0. 93, blunt) and 18. 2% (rFVIIa) versus 13. 2% (placebo) (p = 0. 40, penetrating). Blunt trauma rFVIIa patients received (mean +/- SD) 7. 8 +/- 10. 6 RBC units and 19. 0 +/- 27. 1 total allogeneic units through 48 hours, and placebo patients received 9. 1 +/- 11. 3 RBC units (p = 0. 04) and 23. 5 +/- 28. 0 total allogeneic units (p = 0. 04). Thrombotic adverse events were similar across study cohorts. CONCLUSIONS rFVIIa reduced blood product use but did not affect mortality compared with placebo. Modern evidence-based trauma lowers mortality, paradoxically making outcomes studies increasingly difficult.