Efficacy and Economic Evaluation of Nonbiological Artificial Liver Therapy in Acute-on-chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure
Wu C, Peng W, Cheng D, Gu H, Liu F, Peng S, Fu L
Journal of clinical and translational hepatology. 2023;11(2):433-440
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Nonbiological artificial liver (NBAL) is frequently used as a first-line treatment for hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). This study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy and cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) of comprehensive medical treatment, plasma exchange (PE), and double plasma molecular adsorption system (DPMAS) plus half-dose PE (DPMAS+PE) in patients with HBV-ACLF. METHODS A total of 186 patients with HBV-ACLF randomly received comprehensive medical treatment, PE, or DPMAS+PE and were prospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into four subgroups based on the pretreatment prothrombin activity (PTA): Group I (PTA>40%), group II (PTA 30-40%), group III (PTA 20-30%), and group IV (PTA<20%). The main outcome measures were 28 day effectiveness; 90 day liver transplantation-free survival; change of biochemical parameters; and CER. RESULTS DPMAS+PE treatment was associated with significantly higher 28 day effectiveness and 90 day liver transplantation-free survival compared with PE treatment in patients with group I liver failure. Clearance of serum total bilirubin (TBIL), AST, and creatinine (Cr) were significantly higher in the DPMAS+PE group than in the PE group. For subjects with group I liver failure, DPMAS+PE treatment had advantages of lower CER values and better cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS Compared with comprehensive medical treatment and PE alone, DPMAS with half-dose sequential PE treatment more effectively improved TBIL, AST, and Cr in HBV-ACLF patients, improved 28 day effectiveness and 90 day survival rates in patients with group I liver failure, and was more cost effective. DPMAS+PE is a viable NBAL approach for treatment of HBV-ACLF.
The role of polyglycolic acid sheets in the management of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture: A PRISMA compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
Peng S, Huang S, Xia H, Tan S, Zhong C, Peng Y, Lü M, Tang X
BACKGROUND As a relatively minimally invasive technique, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal lesions. However, it is associated with complications, such as postoperative bleeding, stricture, and perforation. A covering method using polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets for ESD-induced ulcers has been reported to be effective in reducing the risk of post-ESD bleeding and esophageal stricture. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of PGA sheets in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture after ESD. METHODS We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases on October 15, 2019. All eligible articles were selected based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main outcomes were the rates of post-ESD gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture. Cochrane's Q statistic and I2 test were used to identify heterogeneity between the studies. When there was no obvious heterogeneity (I2 < 50%, P > .1), a fixed-effect model was used. When there was obvious heterogeneity (I2 > 50%, P < .1), a random effect model was used. Funnel plots and the Egger regression test were used to assess publication bias. RESULTS Fifteen articles were included in the meta-analysis, of which 7 were exclusively about the use of PGA sheets to prevent postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding, and the remaining reported the use of PGA sheets to prevent postoperative esophageal stenosis. Our analysis showed that preventive therapy with PGA sheets decreased the rates of post-ESD gastrointestinal bleeding (risk ratio [RR] = 0.35, 95% confidential interval [CI]: 0.19-0.64, P < .001) and esophageal stricture (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.79, P = .005), and the gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture rates after preventive treatment with PGA sheets were 5.7% (95% CI: 3.6%-8.8%) and 20.6% (95% CI: 14.5%-28.4%), respectively. CONCLUSION The utilization of PGA sheets after ESD has an excellent outcome in reducing the risk of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture.
LNG-IUS vs. medical treatments for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Chen S, Liu J, Peng S, Zheng Y
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:948709
INTRODUCTION To compare efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with medical treatments for women with heavy menstrual bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in November 2021. All meta-analyses were performed using the random-effects model. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021295379. RESULTS A total of trials (with 14 references) reporting on 1,677 women were included in this systematic review. The majority of the included RCTs were rated with low-to-unclear risk of bias in selection, detection, attrition, reporting, and other bias. All RCTs were rated as high risk in performance bias because blinding was difficult to ensure in the compared groups. Results of meta-analyses revealed that the number of clinical responders was greater in the LNG-IUS group than that in the medical treatments group at both 6-month (steroidal: five RCTs; n = 490; risk ratio [RR]: 1.72 [1.13, 2.62]; I (2) = 92%; nonsteroidal: one RCT; n = 42; RR: 2.34 [1.31, 4.19]) and 12-month (steroidal: three RCTs; n = 261; RR: 1.31 [1.01, 1.71]; I (2) = 74%) endpoints, with no clear differences on number of dropouts, and the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION Evidence indicates that LNG-IUS is superior to the medical treatments in short-term and medium-term clinical responses, blood loss control, compliance, and satisfaction. Meanwhile, frequency of adverse events related to LNG-IUS is acceptable. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO, identifier CRD42021259335, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021295379.
Potentially effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 or MIS-C in children: a systematic review
Wang Z, Zhao S, Tang Y, Wang Z, Shi Q, Dang X, Gan L, Peng S, Li W, Zhou Q, et al
European journal of pediatrics. 2022;:1-12
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using potential drugs: remdesivir and glucocorticoid in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating MIS-C. We searched seven databases, three preprint platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google from December 1, 2019, to August 5, 2021, to collect evidence of remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and IVIG which were used in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. A total of nine cohort studies and one case series study were included in this systematic review. In terms of remdesivir, the meta-analysis of single-arm cohort studies have shown that after the treatment, 54.7% (95%CI, 10.3 to 99.1%) experienced adverse events, 5.6% (95%CI, 1.2 to 10.1%) died, and 27.0% (95%CI, 0 to 73.0%) needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or invasive mechanical ventilation. As for glucocorticoids, the results of the meta-analysis showed that the fixed-effect summary odds ratio for the association with mortality was 2.79 (95%CI, 0.13 to 60.87), and the mechanical ventilation rate was 3.12 (95%CI, 0.80 to 12.08) for glucocorticoids compared with the control group. In terms of IVIG, most of the included cohort studies showed that for MIS-C patients with more severe clinical symptoms, IVIG combined with methylprednisolone could achieve better clinical efficacy than IVIG alone.Conclusions: Overall, the current evidence in the included studies is insignificant and of low quality. It is recommended to conduct high-quality randomized controlled trials of remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C to provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines. What is Known: • The efficacy and safety of using potential drugs such as remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19/MIS-C are unclear. What is New: • Overall, the current evidence cannot adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of using remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. • We are calling for the publication of high-quality clinical trials and provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines.
The effects of tourniquet use on blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty for patients with osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis
Cai DF, Fan QH, Zhong HH, Peng S, Song H
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2019;14(1):348
BACKGROUND The tourniquet is a common medical instrument used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there has always been a debate about the use of a tourniquet and there is no published meta-analysis to study the effects of a tourniquet on blood loss in primary TKA for patients with osteoarthritis. METHODS We performed a literature review on high-quality clinical studies to determine the effects of using a tourniquet or not on blood loss in cemented TKA. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to November 2018 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a meta-analysis following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias of each trial. The statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager statistical software (version 5.3). RESULTS Eleven RCTs involving 541 patients (541 knees) were included in this meta-analysis. There were 271 patients (271 knees) in the tourniquet group and 270 patients (270 knees) in the no tourniquet group. The results showed that using a tourniquet significantly decreased intraoperative blood loss (P < 0.002), calculated blood loss (P < 0.002), and the time of operation (P < 0.002), but tourniquet use did not significantly decrease postoperative blood loss (P > 0.05), total blood loss (P > 0.05), the rate of transfusion (P > 0.05), and of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (P > 0.05) in TKA. CONCLUSIONS Using a tourniquet can significantly decrease intraoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, and operation time but does not significantly decrease the rate of transfusion or the rate of DVT in TKA. More research is needed to determine if there are fewer complications in TKA without the use of tourniquets.
Fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery
Cheng Y, Ye M, Xiong X, Peng S, Wu HM, Cheng N, Gong J
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;((2)):CD009621.
BACKGROUND Postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most frequent and potentially life-threatening complications following pancreatic resections. Fibrin sealants are introduced to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistula by some surgeons. However, the use of fibrin sealants during pancreatic surgery is controversial. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects of fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery. SEARCH METHODS We searched The Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to 26 August 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 26 August 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 26 August 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 26 August 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA We included all randomized controlled trials that compared fibrin sealant group (fibrin glue or fibrin sealant patch) versus control group (no fibrin sealant or placebo) in people undergoing pancreatic surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (or a Peto odds ratio for very rare outcomes), and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS We included nine trials involving 1095 participants who were randomized to the fibrin sealant group (N = 550) and the control group (N = 545) after pancreatic surgery. All of the trials were at high risk of bias. There was no evidence of differences in overall postoperative pancreatic fistula (fibrin sealant 29.6%; control 31.0%; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.21; P = 0.58; nine studies; low-quality evidence), postoperative mortality (3.1% versus 2.1%; Peto OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.82; P = 0.53; eight studies; very low-quality evidence), overall postoperative morbidity (29.6% versus 28.9%; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.32; P = 0.77; five studies), reoperation rate (8.7% versus 10.7%; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.21; P = 0.29; five studies), or length of hospital stay (12.9 days versus 13.1 days; MD -0.73 days, 95% CI -2.20 to 0.74; P = 0.331; six studies) between the groups. The proportion of postoperative pancreatic fistula that was clinically significant was not mentioned in most trials. On inclusion of trials that clearly distinguished clinically significant fistulas, there was inadequate evidence to establish the effect of fibrin sealants on clinically significant postoperative pancreatic fistula (9.4% versus 13.4%; RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.21; P = 0.21; three studies). Quality of life and cost effectiveness were not reported in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Based on the current available evidence, fibrin sealants do not seem to prevent postoperative pancreatic fistula in people undergoing pancreatic surgery.