Therapeutic plasma exchange vs conventional treatment with intravenous high dose steroid for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of neurology. 2020
BACKGROUND Therapeutic plasma exchanges (TPE) has been recommended for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) as a rescue therapy after nonresponding from the high-dose steroid and as an early therapy in severe attacks. We performed a systematic review to evaluate whether therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is better than conventional intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) patients. METHODS Systematic search was conducted in five databases: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials and observational studies of TPE compared to intravenous steroid in NMOSD patients with neurological or visual outcomes in English without publication date restriction. Quality assessment was performed using ROB2 and ROBINS-I. The meta-analysis was done using a random-effects model. Pooled risk ratio (RR) or mean difference with a 95% CIs of efficacy outcomes included the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), visual acuity, and LogMAR were measured. RESULTS Of 3439 potential studies, seven were included in the systematic review (1211 attacks; 433 patients) and three studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to high dose steroid alone, the add-on TPE increases a chance for the returning of EDSS to baseline at discharge (RR 3.02, 95% CI 1.34-6.81) and last follow-up (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79) as well as improves visual acuity at last follow-up. CONCLUSION TPE as an add-on therapy to high-dose steroid injection during an acute attack in NMOSD patients is associated with returning to baseline EDSS at discharge and last follow-up, and a trend to have a lower disability at 6-12 months.
Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Mitigates Blood Loss and Morphine Use After Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of arthroplasty. 2019
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for blood loss reduction. Given limited evidence on potential relationship between the TXA and improvement of pain control and functional outcome after TKA, this study aimed at comparing the blood loss, pain scores, morphine consumption, and knee flexion across the TXA administration routes. METHODS The 228 primary TKA were randomized into no TXA use (No-TXA), intra-articular TXA (15 mg/kg) use (IA-TXA), and intravenous TXA (10 mg/kg) use (IV-TXA). A multivariate regression analysis was used for comparing perioperative blood loss (PBL), drain output, average number of units of blood transfused (ANUBT), visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, amount of morphine consumption, and knee flexion angle. RESULTS The IA-TXA and IV-TXA group had 193.26 (P < .01) and 160.30 mL (P < .01) less PBL than No-TXA, respectively. No-TXA significantly required higher ANUBT than IA-TXA and IV-TXA (P = .03). The IA-TXA group had lower VAS at 6 (P = .04), 12 (P = .03), and 24 hours (P = .02) postoperative when compared to No-TXA, while IV-TXA had no effect. The IA-TXA required 18.26 mg less total morphine at 48 hours than No-TXA (P = .02), whereas IV-TXA used insignificantly (5.31 mg; P = .31) less total morphine at 48 hours than No-TXA. Both TXA routes tended to improve knee flexion, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Both IA-TXA and IV-TXA could significantly reduce PBL and ANUBT. The IA-TXA could significantly mitigate VAS and morphine use after TKA. Hence, IA-TXA could minimize blood loss and may be considered as an adjunct to pain control following TKA.
Blood loss reduction: effect of different knee prosthesis designs and use of tranexamic acid-a randomized controlled trial
European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie. 2019
PURPOSE In regard to blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the effect of either knee prosthesis designs or bone preparation is still unclear. While the benefit of using tranexamic acid (TXA) is well demonstrated, our study aims to determine the effect of different knee prosthesis designs uses and efficacy of blood loss reduction by different routes of TXA administration. METHODS The 228 patients undergone primary TKA were randomized to determine between open-box and closed-box prosthesis. Among each group, a second randomization was applied to categorize the patients into (1) no use of TXA (No-TXA), (2) intra-articular TXA use (IA-TXA) and (3) intravenous TXA use (IV-TXA). The calculated blood loss (CBL), drain volume (DV) and an average number of units of blood transfused (ANUBT) were blindly evaluated. RESULTS The open-box TKA had 85.60 and 63.29 ml (p = 0.02 and p < 0.01) more CBL and DV compared to closed-box TKA. The IA-TXA and IV-TXA significantly reduced CBL by 190.75 and 162.01 ml (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01) and reduced DV by 129.07 and 61.04 ml (p < 0.01 and p = 0.01), respectively, when compared to No-TXA. Patients who received IA and IV-TXA had ANUBT of 0.21 and 0.23 unit, which was significantly lower than 0.42 unit of No-TXA group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Use of the different prosthesis designs could significantly affect CBL and DV following TKA. However, the use of either design resulted in a comparable ANUBT. Regardless of prosthetic type, either IA- or IV-TXA could significantly reduce the CBL and ANUBT when compared to No-TXA.