Biological stratification of clinical disease courses in childhood immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2021
BACKGROUND In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune bleeding disorder, there is a need for better prediction of individual disease courses and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE To predict the response to intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) and ITP disease course using genetic and immune markers. METHODS Children aged below seven years with newly diagnosed ITP (N = 147) from the TIKI study were included, which randomized children to an IVIg or observation group. A total of 46 variables were available: clinical characteristics, targeted genotyping, lymphocyte immune phenotyping, and platelet autoantibodies. RESULTS In the treatment arm, 48/80 children (60%) showed a complete response (platelets ≥100 x 10(9) /L) that lasted for at least one month (complete sustained response; CSR) and 32 exhibited no or a temporary response (absence of a sustained response; ASR). For a biological risk score, five variables were selected by regularized logistic regression that predicted ASR vs CSR: 1) hemoglobin; 2) platelet count; 3) genetic polymorphisms of FcγRIIc; 4) the presence of IgG anti-platelet antibodies; and 5) preceding vaccination. The ASR sensitivity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.80 - 1.00) and specificity was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.80). In the 67 patients of the observation arm, this biological score was also associated with recovery during one-year follow-up. The addition of the biological score to a predefined clinical score further improved the discrimination of favorable ITP disease courses. CONCLUSIONS The prediction of disease courses and IVIg treatment responses in ITP is improved by using both clinical and biological stratification.
Anti-Platelet Antibodies in Childhood Immune Thrombocytopenia: Prevalence and Prognostic Implications
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2020
BACKGROUND Anti-platelet antibody testing may be useful for the diagnosis and management of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). OBJECTIVES Here we aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. METHODS Children with newly diagnosed ITP were included at diagnosis and randomized to an intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or careful observation group (TIKI trial). In this well-defined and longitudinally followed cohort (N = 179), anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were determined by MAIPA. RESULTS The dominant circulating anti-platelet antibody class in childhood ITP was IgM (62% of patients); but IgG antibodies were also found (10%). Children without IgM platelet antibodies were older and more often female. There was weak evidence for an association between IgM anti-GP IIb/IIIa antibodies and an increased bleeding severity (P=0.03). The IgM and IgG anti-platelet responses partially overlapped, and reactivity was frequently directed against multiple glycoproteins. During one year follow-up, children with IgM antibodies in the observation group displayed a faster platelet recovery compared to children without IgM, also after adjustment for age and preceding infections (P=7.1x10(-5) ). The small group of patients with detectable IgG anti-platelet antibodies exhibited an almost complete response to IVIg treatment (N=12; P=0.02), suggesting that IVIg was particularly efficacious in these children. CONCLUSIONS Testing for circulating anti-platelet antibodies may be helpful for the clinical prognostication and the guidance of treatment decisions in newly diagnosed childhood ITP. Our data suggest that the development of even more sensitive tests may further improve the clinical value of antibody testing.
Intravenous immunoglobulin versus observation in childhood immune thrombocytopenia: a randomized controlled trial
Management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) consists of careful observation or immunomodulatory treatment. Observational studies suggest a lower risk of chronic ITP in children after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. In this multicenter randomized trial, children aged 3 months-16 years with newly diagnosed ITP, platelet counts ≤20 x 10(9)/L and mild to moderate bleeding were randomly assigned to receive either a single infusion of 0.8 g/kg IVIg or careful observation. Primary outcome was development of chronic ITP, at time of study initiation defined as a platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/L after 6 months. Two hundred and six children were allocated to receive IVIg (n=102) or careful observation (n=104). Chronic ITP occurred in 18.6% in the IVIg group and in 28.9% in the observation group (relative risk [RR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-1.08). Platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L at 12 months (current definition of chronic ITP) were observed in 10% children in the IVIg group and in 12% in the observation group (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.38-1.84). Complete response rates in the first three months were significantly higher in the IVIg group. IgG- Fc receptor IIb genetic variations were associated with early complete response in both groups. Grade 4-5 bleeding occurred in 9% in the observation group versus 1% in the IVIg group. IVIg treatment at diagnosis in children with ITP did not result in a lower rate of chronic ITP. In the IVIg group higher early complete response rates and less bleeding events were observed. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR 1563.
Screening in pregnancy for fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: systematic review
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2010;117((110):):1335-43.
BACKGROUND Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a potentially devastating disease, which may lead to intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), with neurological damage as a consequence. In the absence of screening, FNAIT is only diagnosed after bleeding symptoms, with preventive options limited to a next pregnancy. OBJECTIVES To estimate the population incidence of FNAIT and its consequences to prepare for study design of a screening programme. SEARCH STRATEGY An electronic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane database, and references of retrieved articles. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA Prospective studies on screening for human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) alloimmunisation in low-risk pregnant women. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Main outcome data were prevalence of HPA-1a negativity, HPA-1a immunisation, platelet count at birth and perinatal ICH. We aimed to compare outcome with and without intervention. MAIN RESULTS HPA-1a alloimmunisation occurred in 294/3028 (9.7%) pregnancies at risk. Severe FNAIT occurred in 71/227 (31%) immunised pregnancies, with perinatal ICH in 7/71 (10%). True natural history data were not found because interventions were performed in most screen-positive women. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Screening for HPA-1a alloimmunisation detects about two cases in 1000 pregnancies. The calculated risk for perinatal ICH of 10% in pregnancies with severe FNAIT is an underestimation because studies without interventions were lacking. Screening of all pregnancies together with effective antenatal treatment such as intravenous immunoglobulin may reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with FNAIT.