Iron supplementation and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age newborns
Pediatric research. 2022
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iron exposure and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS A secondary analysis of the PENUT Trial dataset was conducted. The primary outcome was BPD at 36 weeks gestational age and primary exposures of interest were cumulative iron exposures in the first 28 days and through 36 weeks' gestation. Descriptive statistics were calculated for study cohort characteristics with analysis adjusted for the factors used to stratify randomization. RESULTS Of the 941 patients, 821 (87.2%) survived to BPD evaluation at 36 weeks, with 332 (40.4%) diagnosed with BPD. The median cohort gestational age was 26 weeks and birth weight 810 g. In the first 28 days, 76% of infants received enteral iron and 55% parenteral iron. The median supplemental cumulative enteral and parenteral iron intakes at 28 days were 58.5 and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively, and through 36 weeks' 235.8 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively. We found lower volume of red blood cell transfusions in the first 28 days after birth and higher enteral iron exposure in the first 28 days after birth to be associated with lower rates of BPD. CONCLUSIONS We find no support for an increased risk of BPD with iron supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01378273. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01378273 IMPACT Prior studies and biologic plausibility raise the possibility that iron administration could contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidant-induced lung injury and thus bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. For 24-27-week premature infants, this study finds no association between total cumulative enteral iron supplementation at either 28-day or 36-week postmenstrual age and the risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Enteral Iron Supplementation in Extremely Preterm Infants and its Positive Correlation with Neurodevelopment; Post Hoc Analysis of the PENUT Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of pediatrics. 2021
OBJECTIVES To test whether an increased iron dose is associated with improved neurodevelopment as assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) among infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT). STUDY DESIGN This is a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial which enrolled infants born at 24 to 28 completed weeks of gestation. All PENUT infants who were assessed with BSID-III at 2 years were included in this study. The associations between enteral iron dose at 60 and 90 days and BSID-III component scores were evaluated using generalized estimating equations models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS 692 infants were analyzed (355 placebo, 337 Epo). Enteral iron supplementation ranged 0-14.7 mg/kg/day (IQR 2.1-5.8 mg/kg/day) at day 60, with a mean of 3.6 mg/kg/day in placebo-treated infants and 4.8 mg/kg/day in Epo-treated infants. A significant positive association was seen between BSID-III cognitive scores and iron dose at 60 days, with an effect size of 0.77 BSID points per 50 mg/kg increase in cumulative iron dose (P = .03). Higher iron doses were associated with higher motor and language scores, but did not reach statistical significance. Results at 90 days were not significant. The effect size in the Epo-treated infants compared with placebo was consistently higher. CONCLUSION A positive association was seen between iron dose at 60 days and cognitive outcomes. Our results suggest that increased iron supplementation in preterm infants, at the doses administered in the PENUT Trial, may have positive neurodevelopmental effects, particularly in infants treated with Epo.
Effect of High-Dose Erythropoietin on Blood Transfusions in Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
Infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT), (n= 692).
Erythropoietin (Epo), (n= 337).
Placebo (n= 355).
Enteral iron supplementation ranged 0-14.7 mg/kg/day (IQR 2.1-5.8 mg/kg/day) at day 60, with a mean of 3.6 mg/kg/day in placebo-treated infants and 4.8 mg/kg/day in Epo-treated infants. A significant positive association was seen between BSID-III cognitive scores and iron dose at 60 days, with an effect size of 0.77 BSID points per 50 mg/kg increase in cumulative iron dose. Higher iron doses were associated with higher motor and language scores, but did not reach statistical significance. Results at 90 days were not significant. The effect size in the Epo-treated infants compared with placebo was consistently higher.
JAMA pediatrics. 2020
IMPORTANCE Extremely preterm infants are among the populations receiving the highest levels of transfusions. Erythropoietin has not been recommended for premature infants because most studies have not demonstrated a decrease in donor exposure. OBJECTIVES To determine whether high-dose erythropoietin given within 24 hours of birth through postmenstrual age of 32 completed weeks will decrease the need for blood transfusions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT) is a randomized, double-masked clinical trial with participants enrolled at 19 sites consisting of 30 neonatal intensive care units across the United States. Participants were born at a gestational age of 24 weeks (0-6 days) to 27 weeks (6-7 days). Exclusion criteria included conditions known to affect neurodevelopmental outcomes. Of 3266 patients screened, 2325 were excluded, and 941 were enrolled and randomized to erythropoietin (n = 477) or placebo (n = 464). Data were collected from December 12, 2013, to February 25, 2019, and analyzed from March 1 to June 15, 2019. INTERVENTIONS In this post hoc analysis, erythropoietin, 1000 U/kg, or placebo was given every 48 hours for 6 doses, followed by 400 U/kg or sham injections 3 times a week through postmenstrual age of 32 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Need for transfusion, transfusion numbers and volume, number of donor exposures, and lowest daily hematocrit level are presented herein. RESULTS A total of 936 patients (488 male [52.1%]) were included in the analysis, with a mean (SD) gestational age of 25.6 (1.2) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight of 799 (189) g. Erythropoietin treatment (vs placebo) decreased the number of transfusions (unadjusted mean [SD], 3.5 [4.0] vs 5.2 [4.4]), with a relative rate (RR) of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75); the cumulative transfused volume (mean [SD], 47.6 [60.4] vs 76.3 [68.2] mL), with a mean difference of -25.7 (95% CI, 18.1-33.3) mL; and donor exposure (mean [SD], 1.6 [1.7] vs 2.4 [2.0]), with an RR of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.58-0.77). Despite fewer transfusions, erythropoietin-treated infants tended to have higher hematocrit levels than placebo-treated infants, most noticeable at gestational week 33 in infants with a gestational age of 27 weeks (mean [SD] hematocrit level in erythropoietin-treated vs placebo-treated cohorts, 36.9% [5.5%] vs 30.4% [4.6%] (P < .001). Of 936 infants, 160 (17.1%) remained transfusion free at the end of 12 postnatal weeks, including 43 in the placebo group and 117 in the erythropoietin group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that high-dose erythropoietin as used in the PENUT protocol was effective in reducing transfusion needs in this population of extremely preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01378273.
A Randomized Trial of Erythropoietin for Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants
Extremely preterm infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT), (n= 941).
Erythropoietin, 1000 U/kg followed by 400 U/kg (n = 477).
Placebo followed by sham injections (n = 464).
Compared to placebo, erythropoietin treatment decreased the number of transfusions (unadjusted mean 3.5 vs 5.), the cumulative transfused volume (mean 47.6 vs 76.3 mL), with a mean difference of -25.7 and donor exposure (mean 1.6 vs 2.4). Despite fewer transfusions, erythropoietin-treated infants tended to have higher hematocrit levels than placebo-treated infants (36.9% vs 30.4%). Of 936 infants, 160 remained transfusion free at the end of 12 postnatal weeks, including 43 in the placebo group and 117 in the erythropoietin group.
The New England journal of medicine. 2020;382(3):233-243
BACKGROUND High-dose erythropoietin has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in preclinical models of neonatal brain injury, and phase 2 trials have suggested possible efficacy; however, the benefits and safety of this therapy in extremely preterm infants have not been established. METHODS In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of high-dose erythropoietin, we assigned 941 infants who were born at 24 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to receive erythropoietin or placebo within 24 hours after birth. Erythropoietin was administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 U per kilogram of body weight every 48 hours for a total of six doses, followed by a maintenance dose of 400 U per kilogram three times per week by subcutaneous injection through 32 completed weeks of postmenstrual age. Placebo was administered as intravenous saline followed by sham injections. The primary outcome was death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 26 months of postmenstrual age. Severe neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as severe cerebral palsy or a composite motor or composite cognitive score of less than 70 (which corresponds to 2 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS A total of 741 infants were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis: 376 received erythropoietin and 365 received placebo. There was no significant difference between the erythropoietin group and the placebo group in the incidence of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age (97 children [26%] vs. 94 children [26%]; relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.32; P = 0.80). There were no significant differences between the groups in the rates of retinopathy of prematurity, intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or death or in the frequency of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS High-dose erythropoietin treatment administered to extremely preterm infants from 24 hours after birth through 32 weeks of postmenstrual age did not result in a lower risk of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death at 2 years of age. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; PENUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01378273.).