Effects of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate combined with tranexamic acid on hemostasis and inflammation during perioperative period of total hip arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial
Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR. 2021;:103092
BACKGROUND The hemostatic effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) combined with carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has not been determined. Therefore we performed a randomized study aiming to evaluate the effects of CSS combined with TXA on perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response of THA. HYPOTHESIS CSS combined with TXA can effectively reduce perioperative blood loss and immune response compared to TXA. MATERIAL AND METHODS This randomized placebo-controlled trial assigned 150 patients undergoing unilateral primary total hip arthroplasty who underwent direct anterior approach surgery to 3 groups: group A received TXA plus topical CSS; group B received TXA only; and group C received placebo. The main outcome was total blood loss. Secondary outcomes included reduction in hemoglobin concentration, coagulation parameters, inflammatory marker levels, perioperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, transfusion rates, postoperative hospital stay, and incidence of thromboembolic events. RESULTS Total blood loss in group A (668.84±230.95mL) was lower than in group B (940.96±359.22 mL) and C (1166.52±342.85 mL, p < 0.05). We also found that compared with group B, postoperative hip pain, biomarker level of inflammation, visual analogue score (VAS) pain score in group A were significantly improved. The transfusion rate and unit of group A were significantly lower than group C (8 patients ; 17.5 units), but there was no statistical difference between group A (no transfusion) and group B (2 patients; 4 units). No differences were observed in thromboembolic and other outcomes among the groups. DISCUSSION The combined application of topic CSS and TXA is more effective than TXA alone following THA in regard of reducing total blood loss. In addition, CSS combined with TXA is better than TXA alone in terms of improving postoperative hip pain and reducing the level of inflammatory factors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I; randomized controlled study.
Hemostatic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carbazochrome Sodium Sulfonate in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of arthroplasty. 2019
BACKGROUND Postoperative recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with postoperative anemia, allogeneic transfusion, and stress immune responses to surgery. Carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) reduces bleeding through several mechanisms. We assessed the effect of CSS combined with tranexamic acid (TXA) on postoperative anemia, blood transfusion, and inflammatory responses. METHODS This study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 200 patients undergoing unilateral primary TKA. Patients were divided into 4 groups: group A received TXA plus topical and intravenous CSS; group B received TXA plus topical CSS only; group C received TXA plus intravenous CSS only; group D received TXA only. RESULTS Total blood loss in groups A (609.92 +/- 221.24 mL), B (753.16 +/- 247.67 mL), and C (829.23 +/- 297.45 mL) was lower than in group D (1158.26 +/- 334.13 mL, P < .05). There was no difference in total blood loss between groups B and C. We also found that compared with group D, the postoperative swelling rate, biomarker level of inflammation, visual analog scale pain score, and range of motion at discharge in groups A, B, and C were significantly improved (P < .05). No thromboembolic complications occurred. There were no differences in transfusion rate, intraoperative blood loss, platelet count, or average length of stay among the 4 groups (P > .05). CONCLUSION CSS combined with TXA was more effective than TXA alone in reducing perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response and did not increase the incidence of thromboembolism complications.