Five-year outcomes after IVIG for mild cognitive impairment due to alzheimer disease
BMC neuroscience. 2021;22(1):49
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the five-year treatment effects of a short course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Fifty subjects 50 to 84 years of age with MCI due to AD were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every two weeks x five doses in a randomized double-blinded design as part of a two-year study. Twenty-seven subjects completed an additional three-year extension study. MRI brain imaging, cognitive testing, and conversion to dementia were assessed annually. Participants were stratified into early MCI (E-MCI) and late MCI (L-MCI). The primary endpoint was brain atrophy measured as annualized percent change in ventricular volume (APCV) annually for five years. ANOVA was used to compare annualized percent change in ventricular volume from baseline between the groups adjusting for MCI status (E-MCI, L-MCI). RESULTS Differences in brain atrophy between the groups, which were statistically significant after one year, were no longer significant after five years. IVIG-treated L-MCI subjects did demonstrate a delay in conversion to dementia of 21.4 weeks. CONCLUSION An eight-week course of IVIG totaling 2 g/kg in MCI is safe but is not sufficient to sustain an initial reduction in brain atrophy or a temporary delay in conversion to dementia at five years. Other dosing strategies of IVIG in the early stages of AD should be investigated to assess more sustainable disease-modifying effects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01300728. Registered 23 February 2011.
Are thromboelastometric and thromboelastographic parameters associated with mortality in septic patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of critical care. 2020;61:5-13
BACKGROUND Thromboelastometry/elastography (ROTEM/TEG) showed promising results for diagnosis of sepsis-induced coagulopathy, but their association with the outcome is unclear. Our aim was to assess any difference in ROTEM/TEG measurements between septic survivors and non-survivors. METHODS Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were investigated. The research aimed to include any randomized or observational study: i) on septic adult patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Emergency Department (ED); ii) including ROTEM/TEG; iii) assessing mortality. RESULTS Seven prospective and four retrospective observational studies (952 patients) were included. According to the INTEM/kaolin-assay, clotting time (CT)/R (standardized mean difference(SMD) -0.29, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.09, p = 0.004) and clot formation time (CFT)/K (SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.06, p = 0.02) were shorter in survivors. According to the EXTEM-assay, CT was shorter (MD -11.66 s, 95% CI -22.59 to -0.73, p = 0.04), while MCF was higher (MD 3.49 mm, 95% CI 0.43 to 6.55, p = 0.03) in survivors. A hypocoagulable profile was more frequent in non-survivors (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.18 to 0.55, p < 0.0001). Overall, the risk of bias of the included studies was moderate and the quality of evidence low. CONCLUSIONS Hypocoagulability and lower MCF in EXTEM may be associated with higher mortality in sepsis.
IVIG treatment of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: a randomised double-blinded exploratory study of the effect on brain atrophy, cognition and conversion to dementia
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 2015;88((2):):106-112. 106
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on brain atrophy and cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS 50 participant 50-84 years of age with amnestic MCI were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every 2 weeks for a total of 5 infusions (2 g/kg total dose) in a randomised double-blinded design. MRI brain was completed at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Cognitive testing was completed at baseline and every 4 months. Participants were stratified into early and late (LMCI) MCI stages. Average annualised per cent change in ventricular volume was computed as a measure of brain atrophy. RESULTS There was significantly less brain atrophy (p=0.037, adjusted for MCI status) in the IVIG group (5.87%) when compared with placebo (8.14%) at 12 months; at 24 months, the reduction in brain atrophy no longer reached statistical significance. The LMCI participants who received IVIG performed better on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog; p=0.011) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; p=0.004) at 1 year; these differences were not present after 2 years. There was no difference in conversion to AD dementia between the treatment and control groups after 2 years; however, at 1 year, there were fewer conversions from LMCI to AD dementia in the IVIG group (33.3%) when compared with control group (58.3%). CONCLUSIONS This exploratory study provides limited evidence that a short course of IVIG administered in the MCI stage of AD reduces brain atrophy, prevents cognitive decline in LMCI and delays conversion to AD dementia for at least 1 year; however, this effect of IVIG appears to wane by 2 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01300728.