Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Enhancing the Osteogenic Potential of Bone Graft in Oral and Maxillofacial Region
Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery. 2021;20(2):282-295
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of bone and soft tissue healing. It represents a relatively new biotechnology that is part of the growing interest in tissue engineering and cellular therapy. METHODS A prospective study was carried out in 50 patients. The cases were selected randomly in the age group of 8-50 years who needed bone grafts for alveolar cleft defects and surgical defects following removal of osteolytic jaw lesions. They were divided into study group with autologous PRP and control group without PRP. Bone density was calculated as per Hounsfield scale preoperatively and post-operatively for both the groups. RESULTS There was significant difference in the Hounsfield units at 06 months and 12 months post-operatively in both the groups showing good amount of bone regeneration. The preoperative volume of the defect and the post-operative volume of the regenerated bone were statistically analysed. The mean V2 was 0.7652 cc for the study group, whereas for control group, it was 0.4840 cc. The volume ratio for study group was 0.9070 and for control group was 0.6740. This showed greater bone regeneration in the study group. The results were statistically significant for both the groups. CONCLUSION PRP is a new application of tissue engineering and a developing area of interest for clinicians and researchers. It is a storage vehicle for growth factors, especially PDGF and TGF-b, both of which influence bone regeneration, and also eliminates the concerns about immunogenic reactions and disease transmission. PRP does enhance the healing of bone grafts in the maxillofacial region as shown by the increase in the density of bone.