Tranexamic acid in non-traumatic intracranial bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):15275
Non-traumatic intracranial bleeding (NTIB), comprising subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intra-cranial bleeding (ICH) is a significant public health concern. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a promising treatment with benefits yet to be fully demonstrated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the impact of TXA on mortality in NTIB. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases for studies reporting mortality data following the use of TXA in NTIB for comparisons with a control group. We computed random-effect meta-analysis on estimates of risk and sensitivity analyses. We computed meta-regression to examine the putative effects of the severity of NTIB, sociodemographic data (age, sex), and publication date. Among potentially 10,008 articles, we included 15 studies representing a total of 4883 patients: 2455 receiving TXA and 2428 controls; 1110 died (23%) during the follow-up. The meta-analysis demonstrated a potential of 22% decrease in mortality for patients treated by TXA (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.58-0.98, p = 0.002). Meta-regression did not demonstrate any influence of the severity of NTIB, age, sex, length of treatment or date of publication. Sensitivity analyses confirmed benefits of TXA on mortality. TXA appears to be a therapeutic option to reduce non-traumatic intracranial bleeding mortality, particularly in patients with SAH.
Hemostatic efficacy of latest-generation fibrin sealant after hepatic resection: a randomized controlled clinical study
Langenbecks Archives of Surgery. 2014;399((7):):837-47.
PURPOSE This randomized, controlled, single-blinded multicenter study evaluated the efficacy of latest-generation fibrin sealant containing synthetic aprotinin as fibrinolysis inhibitor as supportive treatment for hemostasis after elective partial hepatectomy. METHODS Adult subjects undergoing resection of at least one liver segment were assigned to treatment with fibrin sealant or manual compression with a surgical gauze swab if persistent oozing necessitated additional hemostatic measures after primary control of arterial and venous bleeding. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of subjects with intraoperative hemostasis at 4 min after start of randomized treatment application. Secondary efficacy outcome measures included intraoperative hemostasis at 6, 8, and 10 min, intra- and postoperative rebleedings, transfusion requirements, and drainage volume. RESULTS Seventy subjects were randomized. Hemostasis at 4 min was achieved in 29/35 (82.9 %) fibrin sealant subjects compared with 13/35 (37.1 %) control subjects (p<0.001). Significantly more fibrin sealant subjects achieved hemostasis at 6 (p<0.001), 8 (p=0.028), and 10 min (p=0.017). The number of rebleedings was low in both study arms. Transfusion requirements and 48-h drainage volumes were similar between the study arms. No adverse events related to study treatment were reported. CONCLUSIONS Fibrin sealant was shown to be safe and superior to manual compression in the control of parenchymal bleeding after hepatic resection. The use of synthetic aprotinin as fibrinolysis inhibitor further improves the safety margin of fibrin sealant by eliminating the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and other bovine pathogens.
A French multicenter randomised trial comparing two dose-regimens of prothrombin complex concentrates in urgent anticoagulation reversal
Critical Care (London, England). 2013;17((1):):R4.
INTRODUCTION Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) are haemostatic blood preparations indicated for urgent anticoagulation reversal, though the optimal dose for effective reversal is still under debate. The latest generation of PCCs include four coagulation factors, the so-called 4-factor PCC. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two doses, 25 and 40 IU/kg, of 4-factor PCC in vitamin K antagonist (VKA) associated intracranial haemorrhage. METHODS We performed a phase III, prospective, randomised, open-label study including patients with objectively diagnosed VKA-associated intracranial haemorrhage between November 2008 and April 2011 in 22 centres in France. Patients were randomised to receive 25 or 40 IU/kg of 4-factor PCC. The primary endpoint was the international normalised ratio (INR) 10 minutes after the end of 4-factor PCC infusion. Secondary endpoints were changes in coagulation factors, global clinical outcomes and incidence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS A total of 59 patients were randomised: 29 in the 25 IU/kg and 30 in the 40 IU/kg group. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were comparable between the groups. The mean INR was significantly reduced to 1.2 - and <1.5 in all patients of both groups - 10 minutes after 4-factor PCC infusion. The INR in the 40 IU/kg group was significantly lower than in the 25 IU/kg group 10 minutes (P = 0.001), 1 hour (P = 0.001) and 3 hours (P = 0.02) after infusion. The 40 IU/kg dose was also effective in replacing coagulation factors such as PT (P = 0.038), FII (P = 0.001), FX (P <0.001), protein C (P = 0.002) and protein S (0.043), 10 minutes after infusion. However, no differences were found in haematoma volume or global clinical outcomes between the groups. Incidence of death and thrombotic events was similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Rapid infusion of both doses of 4-factor PCC achieved an INR of 1.5 or less in all patients with a lower INR observed in the 40 IU/kg group. No safety concerns were raised by the 40 IU/kg dose. Further trials are needed to evaluate the impact of the high dose of 4-factor PCC on functional outcomes and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION Eudra CT number 2007-000602-73.