Tranexamic acid and reduction of blood transfusion in lower limb trauma surgery: a randomized controlled study
INTRODUCTION Post-operative blood loss in lower limb trauma fractures increases morbidity. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and the consequent requirement of blood transfusion in the Indian population. METHODS This was a randomized controlled study of 100 patients with lower limb trauma. Fifty patients were given 1 g of TXA before surgery, and 50 patients were not given TXA. The requirement of blood transfusion, fall in Hb, the number of days admitted in the hospital after surgery were recorded, and evidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was monitored. RESULTS Baseline demographics between the groups were comparable. The required blood transfusion and fall in Hb in patients receiving intra-operative TXA were significantly lower than those not given TXA (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT in both groups. DISCUSSION TXA helps reduce the morbidity of trauma patients by reducing the requirement for blood transfusion. Its use is safe in lower limb trauma surgery and lowers the cost of therapy to the patient.
Chronic plantar fasciitis: effect of platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, and placebo
Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. It is a disabling disease in its chronic form. It is a degenerative tissue condition of the plantar fascia rather than an inflammation. Various treatment options are available, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, orthosis, and physiotherapy. This study compared the effects of local platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, and placebo injections in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. In this double-blind study, patients were divided randomly into 3 groups. Local injections of platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, or normal saline were given. Patients were assessed with the visual analog scale for pain and with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle and Hindfoot score before injection, at 3 weeks, and at 3-month follow-up. Mean visual analog scale score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups decreased from 7.44 and 7.72 preinjection to 2.52 and 3.64 at final follow-up, respectively. Mean AOFAS score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups improved from 51.56 and 55.72 preinjection to 88.24 and 81.32 at final follow-up, respectively. There was a significant improvement in visual analog scale score and AOFAS score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups at 3 weeks and at 3-month follow-up. There was no significant improvement in visual analog scale score or AOFAS score in the placebo group at any stage of the study. The authors concluded that local injection of platelet-rich plasma or corticosteroid is an effective treatment option for chronic plantar fasciitis. Platelet-rich plasma injection is as effective as or more effective than corticosteroid injection in treating chronic plantar fasciitis.