International guidelines regarding the role of IVIG in the management of Rh- and ABO-mediated haemolytic disease of the newborn
British journal of haematology. 2022
Haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can be associated with significant morbidity. Prompt treatment with intensive phototherapy (PT) and exchange transfusions (ETs) can dramatically improve outcomes. ET is invasive and associated with risks. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be an alternative therapy to prevent use of ET. An international panel of experts was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of IVIG to reduce the need for ETs, improve neurocognitive outcomes, reduce bilirubin level, reduce the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and severity of anaemia, and/or reduce duration of hospitalization for neonates with Rh or ABO-mediated HDN. We used a systematic approach to search and review the literature and then develop recommendations from published data. These recommendations conclude that IVIG should not be routinely used to treat Rh or ABO antibody-mediated HDN. In situations where hyperbilirubinaemia is severe (and ET is imminent), or when ET is not readily available, the role of IVIG is unclear. High-quality studies are urgently needed to assess the optimal use of IVIG in patients with HDN.
Quality of evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion and use: A systematic review
BACKGROUND Guidelines for platelet (PLT) transfusion are an important source of information for clinicians. Although guidelines intend to increase consistency and quality of care, variation in methodology and recommendations may exist that could impact the value of a guideline. We aimed to determine the quality of existing PLT transfusion guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument and to describe the inconsistencies in recommendations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic search was undertaken for evidence-based guidelines from January 1, 2013, to January 25, 2019. Citations were reviewed in duplicate for inclusion and descriptive data extracted. Four physicians appraised the guideline using the AGREE II instrument and the scaled score for each item evaluated was calculated. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO. RESULTS Of 6744 citations, 6740 records were screened. Seven of 28 full-text studies met the inclusion criteria. The median scaled score (and the interquartile range of the scaled score) for the following items were as follows: scope and purpose, 94% (8%); stakeholder involvement, 63% (18%); rigor of development, 83% (14%); clarity of presentation, 94% (6%); applicability, 58% (20%); and editorial independence, 77% (4%). Overall quality ranged from 4 to 7 (7 is the maximum score). Inconsistent recommendations were on prophylactic PLT transfusion in hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia in the presence of risk factors and dose recommendations. CONCLUSION Inconsistencies between guidelines and variable quality highlight areas for future guideline writers to address. Areas of specific attention include issues of stakeholder involvement and applicability.
Guidelines for platelet (PLT) transfusion (7 studies).
Systematic review to determine the quality of existing PLT transfusion guidelines and to describe the inconsistencies in recommendations.
The median scaled score for the following items were as follows: scope and purpose, 94%; stakeholder involvement, 63%; rigor of development, 83%; clarity of presentation, 94%; applicability, 58%; and editorial independence, 77%. Overall quality ranged from 4 to 7 (7 was the maximum score). Inconsistent recommendations were found on prophylactic PLT transfusion in hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia in the presence of risk factors, and dose recommendations.
Convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized controlled trial
Nature Medicine. 2021
The efficacy of convalescent plasma for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. Although most randomized controlled trials have shown negative results, uncontrolled studies have suggested that the antibody content could influence patient outcomes. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma for adults with COVID-19 receiving oxygen within 12 d of respiratory symptom onset ( NCT04348656 ). Patients were allocated 2:1 to 500 ml of convalescent plasma or standard of care. The composite primary outcome was intubation or death by 30 d. Exploratory analyses of the effect of convalescent plasma antibodies on the primary outcome was assessed by logistic regression. The trial was terminated at 78% of planned enrollment after meeting stopping criteria for futility. In total, 940 patients were randomized, and 921 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Intubation or death occurred in 199/614 (32.4%) patients in the convalescent plasma arm and 86/307 (28.0%) patients in the standard of care arm-relative risk (RR) = 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.43, P = 0.18). Patients in the convalescent plasma arm had more serious adverse events (33.4% versus 26.4%; RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57, P = 0.034). The antibody content significantly modulated the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. In multivariate analysis, each standardized log increase in neutralization or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity independently reduced the potential harmful effect of plasma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.95 and OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87, respectively), whereas IgG against the full transmembrane spike protein increased it (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.05). Convalescent plasma did not reduce the risk of intubation or death at 30 d in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Transfusion of convalescent plasma with unfavorable antibody profiles could be associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to standard care.
Restrictive versus Liberal Transfusion in Patients with Diabetes Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: An Open-Label Randomized, Blinded Outcome Evaluation Trial
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2021
AIM: To characterize the association between diabetes and transfusion and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery, and to evaluate whether restrictive transfusion thresholds are harmful in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The multinational, open-label, randomized controlled TRICS-III trial assessed a restrictive transfusion strategy (hemoglobin [Hb] transfusion threshold <75 g/L) compared to a liberal strategy (Hb <95 g/L for operating room or ICU; or < 85 g/L for ward) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass with a moderate-to-high risk of death (EuroSCORE ≥6). Diabetes status was collected preoperatively. The primary composite outcome was all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and new-onset renal failure requiring dialysis at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included components of the composite outcome at 6 months, and transfusion and clinical outcomes at 28 days. RESULTS Of the 5092 patients analyzed, 1396 (27.4%) had diabetes (Restrictive: n = 679, Liberal n = 717). Patients with diabetes had more cardiovascular disease than patients without diabetes. Neither the presence of diabetes (OR [95%CI]1.10[0.93-1.31]) or the restrictive strategy increased the risk for the primary composite outcome (diabetes OR [95%CI]1.04[0.68-1.59] vs. no diabetes OR 1.02[0.85-1.22],p(interaction) = 0.92). In patients with versus without diabetes, a restrictive transfusion strategy was more effective at reducing red blood cell transfusion (diabetes OR [95%CI] 0.28[0.21-0.36]; no diabetes OR [95%CI] 0.40[0.35-0.47];p(interaction) = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The presence of diabetes did not modify the effect of a restrictive transfusion strategy on the primary composite outcome, but improved its efficacy on red cell transfusion. Restrictive transfusion triggers are safe and effective in patients with diabetes undergoing cardiac surgery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Patients with diabetes undergoing cardiac surgery enrolled in the multinational TRICS-III trial (n= 1,396).
Restrictive transfusion threshold strategy (n= 679).
Liberal transfusion threshold strategy (n= 717).
Of the 5,092 patients analysed, 1396 (27.4%) had diabetes. Patients with diabetes had more cardiovascular disease than patients without diabetes. Neither the presence of diabetes nor the restrictive strategy increased the risk for the primary composite outcome vs. no diabetes. In patients with vs. without diabetes, a restrictive transfusion strategy was more effective at reducing red blood cell transfusion.
Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on supply and use of blood for transfusion
Lancet Haematol. 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has major implications for blood transfusion. There are uncertain patterns of demand, and transfusion institutions need to plan for reductions in donations and loss of crucial staff because of sickness and public health restrictions. We systematically searched for relevant studies addressing the transfusion chain-from donor, through collection and processing, to patients-to provide a synthesis of the published literature and guidance during times of potential or actual shortage. A reduction in donor numbers has largely been matched by reductions in demand for transfusion. Contingency planning includes prioritisation policies for patients in the event of predicted shortage. A range of strategies maintain ongoing equitable access to blood for transfusion during the pandemic, in addition to providing new therapies such as convalescent plasma. Sharing experience and developing expert consensus on the basis of evolving publications will help transfusion services and hospitals in countries at different stages in the pandemic.
Safety of a Restrictive versus Liberal Approach to Red Blood Cell Transfusion on the Outcome of AKI in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2019
BACKGROUND Safely reducing red blood cell transfusions can prevent transfusion-related adverse effects, conserve the blood supply, and reduce health care costs. Both anemia and red blood cell transfusion are independently associated with AKI, but observational data are insufficient to determine whether a restrictive approach to transfusion can be used without increasing AKI risk. METHODS In a prespecified kidney substudy of a randomized noninferiority trial, we compared a restrictive threshold for red blood cell transfusion (transfuse if hemoglobin<7.5 g/dl, intraoperatively and postoperatively) with a liberal threshold (transfuse if hemoglobin<9.5 g/dl in the operating room or intensive care unit, or if hemoglobin<8.5 g/dl on the nonintensive care ward). We studied 4531 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass who had a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death. The substudy's primary outcome was AKI, defined as a postoperative increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl within 48 hours of surgery, or ≥50% within 7 days of surgery. RESULTS Patients in the restrictive-threshold group received significantly fewer transfusions than patients in the liberal-threshold group (1.8 versus 2.9 on average, or 38% fewer transfusions in the restricted-threshold group compared with the liberal-threshold group; P<0.001). AKI occurred in 27.7% of patients in the restrictive-threshold group (624 of 2251) and in 27.9% of patients in the liberal-threshold group (636 of 2280). Similarly, among patients with preoperative CKD, AKI occurred in 33.6% of patients in the restrictive-threshold group (258 of 767) and in 32.5% of patients in the liberal-threshold group (252 of 775). CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a restrictive transfusion approach resulted in fewer red blood cell transfusions without increasing the risk of AKI.
Efficacy and safety of erythropoietin and iron therapy to reduce red blood cell transfusion in surgical patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 2019
PURPOSE Iron restricted anemia is prevalent in surgical patients and is associated with an increased risk of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and adverse events. Treatment of anemia includes oral and intravenous iron and erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). More recent studies have focused on the use of intravenous iron as the primary approach to treating anemia. Nevertheless, the optimal treatment strategy for anemia remains to be established. Our primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ESA and iron therapy relative to iron therapy alone in reducing RBC transfusion in surgical patients. SOURCE We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to May 2018. We included randomized-controlled trials in which adult surgical patients received an ESA and iron, vs iron alone, prior to cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Our primary outcome was RBC transfusion rate. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin concentration (post-treatment and postoperatively), number of RBC units transfused, mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), renal dysfunction, pulmonary embolism (PE), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In total, 25 studies (4,719 participants) were included. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and iron therapy reduced RBC transfusion relative to iron therapy (relative risk [RR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.71) without any change in mortality (RR 1.31; 95% CI, 0.80 to 2.16), stroke (RR 1.91; 95% CI, 0.63 to 5.76), MI (RR 1.12; 95% CI, 0.50 to 2.50), renal dysfunction (RR 0.96; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.26), PE (RR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.15 to 5.83), or DVT (RR 1.48; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.31). CONCLUSION Administration of ESA and iron therapy reduced the risk for RBC transfusion compared with iron therapy alone in patients undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, publication bias and heterogeneity reduces the confidence of the finding. Although the analysis was probably under-powered for some outcomes, no difference in the incidence of serious adverse events was observed with ESA and iron compared with iron alone. Further large prospective trials are required to confirm these findings.
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: recommendations for evidence-based practice, an international approach
British journal of haematology. 2019
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) may result in severe bleeding, particularly fetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). As a result, FNAIT requires prompt identification and treatment; subsequent pregnancies need close surveillance and management. An international panel convened to develop evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of FNAIT. A rigorous approach was used to search, review and develop recommendations from published data for: antenatal management, postnatal management, diagnostic testing and universal screening. To confirm FNAIT, fetal human platelet antigen (HPA) typing, using non-invasive methods if quality-assured, should be performed during pregnancy when the father is unknown, unavailable for testing or heterozygous for the implicated antigen. Women with a previous child with an ICH related to FNAIT should be offered intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions during subsequent affected pregnancies as early as 12 weeks gestation. Ideally, HPA-selected platelets should be available at delivery for potentially affected infants and used to increase the neonatal platelet count as needed. If HPA-selected platelets are not immediately available, unselected platelets should be transfused. FNAIT studies that optimize antenatal and postnatal management, develop risk stratification algorithms to guide management and standardize laboratory testing to identify high risk pregnancies are needed.
Postnatal intervention for the treatment of FNAIT: a systematic review
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2019
OBJECTIVE Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is associated with life-threatening bleeding. This systematic review of postnatal management of FNAIT examined transfusion of human platelet antigen (HPA) selected or unselected platelets, and/or IVIg on platelet increments, hemorrhage and mortality. STUDY DESIGN MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane searches were conducted until 11 May 2018. RESULT Of 754 neonates, 382 received platelet transfusions (51%). HPA-selected platelets resulted in higher platelet increments and longer response times than HPA-unselected platelets. However, unselected platelets generally led to sufficient platelet increments to 30 x 10(9)/L, a level above which intracranial hemorrhage or other life-threatening bleeding rarely occurred. Platelet increments were not improved with the addition of IVIg to platelet transfusion. CONCLUSION Overall, HPA-selected platelet transfusions were more effective than HPA-unselected platelets but unselected platelets were often effective enough to achieve clinical goals. Available studies do not clearly demonstrate a benefit for addition of IVIg to platelet transfusion.
Reported Outcomes in Perinatal Iron Deficiency Anemia Trials: A Systematic Review
Gynecologic and obstetric investigation. 2019;:1-18
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are global health concerns associated with adverse perinatal effects. Despite efforts taken at the international level, there is no consensus on unified prevention/treatment strategies, largely stemming from inconsistencies of outcome reporting. Our objective was to comprehensively assess outcome reporting perinatal iron intervention trials as Phase 1 of core outcome set (COS) development to inform future research. METHODS Systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases, and CINAHL (January 2000 - April 2016), with inclusion of trials involving pregnant or postpartum women with ID/IDA confirmed before recruitment. Articles were independently screened and selected by 2 reviewers; data were extracted in duplicate. Quality was assessed using published scoring systems. Outcome definitions and measurement methods were tabulated. RESULTS Of 7,046 citations, 33 randomized controlled trials were included. Sixty-nine reported outcomes were categorized into 8 domains. High methodological quality characterized 25 (76%) studies. Reporting quality was low in 16 (49%), moderate in 13 (39%), and high in 4 (12%) studies. Variation was greatest for outcome definition, timing of assessment and measurement methods. CONCLUSION This review identifies a comprehensive long-list of outcomes reported of perinatal iron interventions for ID/IDA. Beyond highlighting existing variation in outcome reporting, it provides a foundation for development of a COS for future trials.