Comparison of Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine on the bleeding volume during Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery
International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. 2022;14(3):177-186
BACKGROUND Bleeding in Dacryocystorhinostomy (DRC) limits the surgeon's sight and access. Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine reduce intraoperative blood loss. However, no study has been carried out to compare the efficacy of the latter drugs during DCR surgery. METHODS Ninety healthy candidates for DCR surgery with chronic Dacryocystitis (aging 20-80) were randomly assigned in groups of 30 to receive low doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA) (10 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 1000 mg), Remifentanil (0.1 µ/kg), or Hydralazine (0.1 mg/kg). All drugs were infused over 15 minutes before the initiation of surgery. The primary outcome was the bleeding volume during the surgery and until 2 hours in recovery. This study was approved by the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the code of IRCT20210614051574N10 (https://en.irct.ir/trial/62759). RESULTS Thirty patients (mean age ± SD: 50.48±13.4) were investigated. Mean blood loss volume was lower in Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups compared with the TXA group (P<0.05); there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in bleeding volume between Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups (Tranexamic acid group: 146.83±91 ml, Remifentanil group: 77.6±52.1 ml, Hydralazine group: 80.0±48.7 ml, 95% confidence interval, P<0.05). CONCLUSION Our results show that Remifentanil and Hydralazine are more effective than Tranexamic acid in bleeding control.
Effects of the Two Doses of Dexmedetomidine on Sedation, Agitation, and Bleeding During Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy
Anesthesiology and pain medicine. 2021;11(5):e118424
BACKGROUND Due to the importance of dexmedetomidine and its different dosages, here, we aimed to investigate and compare the effectiveness of the doses of 1 µg/kg and 2 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine in sedation, agitation, and bleeding in pediatrics undergoing adenotonsillectomy. METHODS This double-blinded randomized clinical trial was performed on 105 pediatric patients that were candidates for adenotonsillectomy. Then, the patients were divided into three groups receiving dexmedetomidine at a dose of 2 µg/kg, diluted dexmedetomidine at 1 µg/kg, and normal saline. The drugs were administered 15 minutes before operations via the intravenous method. The duration of extubation, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and SPO(2) in the recovery were recorded. We also collected data regarding patients' sedation and agitation every 15 minutes. RESULTS Our data showed no significant differences between the groups of patients regarding MAP, HR, and SPO(2). However, the mean sedation score was significantly higher in patients receiving dexmedetomidine (2 µg/kg), and this score was lowest in the control group at the time of entrance to the recovery room. The patients that received dexmedetomidine at a dose of 1 µg/kg had the lowest agitation score after 45 minutes of being in the recovery room, and the patients treated with dexmedetomidine at a dose of 2 µg/kg had the lowest agitation score after 60 minutes of being in the recovery compared to other groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS The use of the doses of 1 µg/kg and 2 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine was associated with proper sedation and a significant reduction in agitation. The patients also had lower amounts of bleeding. We recommend that anesthesiologists should pay more attention to dexmedetomidine at a dose of 2 µg/kg, especially in pediatric surgical procedures.
Selection of the optimal dosage of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during pediatric cleft palate surgery
Tzu chi medical journal. 2021;33(2):181-187
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate and select the optimal dosage of tranexamic acid (TXA) to reduce blood loss during cleft palate surgery in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on 80 children under 3 years of age that were candidates for cleft palate surgery. These children were divided into four groups as follows: the first, second, and third groups received 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg of TXA, respectively. Moreover, the fourth group was considered as the control group. Before induction of anesthesia and then every 15 min during the surgery, some parameters such as mean arterial pressure, heart rate, SpO(2), and ETCO(2) were recorded. Moreover, the amount of blood loss during the surgery, the level of surgeon's satisfaction, and incidence rate of complications were assessed and recorded. RESULTS The amount of blood loss during the surgery in TXA groups receiving dosages of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg with the means of 63.75 ± 10.62, 61.25 ± 15.03, and 61.00 ± 14.29, respectively, was significantly lower than that of the control group with the mean of 92.25 ± 19.83 (P < 0.001). Moreover, no significant difference was found between the three groups receiving TXA dosages in terms of the amount of blood loss, the level of surgeon's satisfaction (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION According to the results of the present study, all three dosages of TXA had a significant role in reducing blood loss in cleft palate surgery. Given the potential for increased risk of side effects from the drug, it seems safe to use the minimal dosage of this drug to control and reduce blood loss during cleft palate surgery in children <3 years of age.