Leukodepleted Packed Red Blood Cells Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiovascular Surgical Procedure: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Cardiology research and practice. 2019;2019:7543917
Background: Leukocytes contained in the allogeneic packed red blood cell (PRBC) are the cause of certain adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion. Leukoreduction consists of eliminating leukocytes in all blood products below the established safety levels for any patient type. In this systematic review, we appraise the clinical effectiveness of allogeneic leukodepleted (LD) PRBC transfusion for preventing infections and death in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgical procedures. Methods: We searched randomized controlled trials (RCT), enrolling patients undergoing a major cardiovascular surgical procedure and transfused with LD-PRBC. Data were extracted, and risk of bias was assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. In addition, trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to assess the need of conducting additional trials. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results: Seven studies met the eligibility criteria. Quality of the evidence was rated as moderate for both outcomes. The risk ratio for death from any cause comparing the LD-PRBC versus non-LD-PRBC group was 0.69 (CI 95% = 0.53 to 0.90; I (2) = 0%). The risk ratio for infection in the same comparison groups was 0.77 (CI 95% = 0.66 to 0.91; I (2) = 0%). TSA showed a conclusive result in this outcome. Conclusions: We found evidence that supports the routine use of leukodepletion in patients undergoing a major cardiovascular surgical procedure requiring PRBC transfusion to prevent death and infection. In the case of infection, the evidence should be considered sufficient and conclusive and hence indicated that further trials would not be required.
Quality of clinical practice guidelines about red blood cell transfusion
Journal of evidence-based medicine. 2018
BACKGROUND Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are essential in health care. The quality of recommendations included in clinical practice guidelines (CPG), regarding this intervention, has not been systematically evaluated. This paper systematically assessed CPGs for RBC-transfusion, to appraise their methodological quality, to explore changes in quality over time, and to assess the consistency of the hemoglobin threshold (HT) recommendations. METHODS We searched for CPGs that included recommendations of RBC-transfusion in generic databases, compiler entities, registries, clearinghouses and guideline developers. Three reviewers extracted data on CPGs characteristics and HT recommendations, independently appraised the quality of the studies using AGREE II and resolved disagreements by consensus. RESULTS We examined 16 CPGs. Mean scores (mean +/- SD) were: scope and purpose (59.4% +/- 19.8%), stakeholder involvement (43.2% +/- 22.6%), rigor of development (50% +/- 25%), clarity of presentation (74.4% +/- 12.6%), applicability (19.4% +/- 18.8%), and editorial independence (41% +/- 30%). Seven CPGs recommended a restrictive strategy for RBC transfusion; four CPGs gave a guarded statement considering an HT of 7 g/dL, as safe to prescribe an RBC transfusion. Eight CPGs did not provide an HT stating that RBC transfusions should not be prescribed by HT alone. CONCLUSIONS Only 3 out of the 16 evaluated CPGs were "recommended" by the independent evaluators. Four domains "stakeholder involvement," "rigor of development," applicability," and "editorial independence" had serious shortcomings. Recommendations about the use of an HT for RBC-transfusion were heterogeneous among guidelines. Greater efforts are needed to provide high-quality CPGs in the RBC-transfusion practice.
Leukoreduction for the prevention of adverse reactions from allogeneic blood transfusion
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. 2015;((12)):CD009745.
BACKGROUND A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, implemented to solve life and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. However, blood transfusions have adverse events, some of them potentially related to immune modulation or to a direct transmission of infectious agents (e.g. cytomegalovirus). Leukoreduction is a process in which the white blood cells are intentionally reduced in packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in order to reduce the risk of adverse reactions. The potential benefits of leukoreduced PRBCs in all types of transfused patients for decreasing infectious and non-infectious complications remain unclear. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical effectiveness of leukoreduction of packed red blood cells for preventing adverse reactions following allogeneic blood transfusion. SEARCH METHODS We ran the most recent search on 10th November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase(OvidSP), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), LILACS (BIREME), and clinical trials registers. In addition, we checked the reference lists of all relevant trials and reviews identified in the literature searches. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised clinical trials including patients of all ages requiring PRBC allogeneic transfusion. Any study was eligible for inclusion, regardless of the length of participant follow-up or country where the study was performed. The primary outcome was transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Secondary outcomes were death from any cause, infection from any cause, non-infectious complications and any other adverse event. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS At least two review authors independently performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessments and data extraction. We estimated pooled relative risk for dichotomous outcomes, and we measured statistical heterogeneity using I2 statistic. The random-effects model was used to synthesise results. We conducted a trial sequential analysis to assess the risk of random errors in cumulative meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS Thirteen studies, most including adult patients, met the eligibility criteria. We found no clear evidence of an effect of leukoreduced PRBC versus non-leukoreduced PRBC in patients that were randomised to receive transfusion for the following outcomes: TRALI RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.36, P = 0.80 from one trial reporting data on 1864 trauma patients. The accrued information of 1864 participants constituted only 28.5% of the diversity-adjusted required information size (DARIS) of 6548 participants. The quality of evidence was low. Death from any cause: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.12, I2 statistic = 63%, P = 0.20 from nine trials reporting data on 6485 cardiovascular surgical patients, gastro-oncology surgical patients, trauma patients and HIV infected patients. The accrued information of 6485 participants constituted only 55.3% of the DARIS of 11,735 participants. The quality of evidence was very low. Infection from any cause: RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.03, I2 statistic = 84%, P = 0.08 from 10 trials reporting data on 6709 cardiovascular surgical patients, gastro-oncology surgical patients, trauma patients and HIV infected patients. The accrued information of 6709 participants constituted only 60.6% of the DARIS of 11,062 participants. The quality of evidence was very low. Adverse events: The only adverse event reported as an adverse event was fever (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.02; I2 statistic= 0%, P = 0.07). Fever was reported in two trials on 634 cardiovascular surgical and gastro-oncology surgical patients. The accrued information of 634 participants constituted only 84.4% of the DARIS of 751 participants. The quality of evidence was low. Incidence of other non-infectious complications: This outcome was not assessed in any included trial. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is no clear evidence for supporting or rejecting the routine use of leukoreduction in all patients requiring PRBC transfusion for preventing TRALI, dea
Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. 2015;((7)):CD009330.
BACKGROUND A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. SEARCH METHODS We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for > 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. MAIN RESULTS We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with > 21 days storage ('prolonged' or 'older') versus packed red blood cells with < 21 days storage ('fresh'). We pooled data to assess the effect of prolonged storage on death from any cause. The confidence in the results from these trials was very low, due to the bias in their design and their limited sample sizes.The estimated effect of packed red blood cells with > 21 days storage versus packed red blood cells with < 21 days storage for the outcome death from any cause was imprecise (5/45 [11.11%] versus 2/46 [4.34%]; RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.65 to 8.52; I(2): 0%, P = 0.26, very low quality of evidence). Trial sequential analysis, with only two trials, shows that we do not yet have convincing evidence that older packed red blood cells induce a 20% relative risk reduction of death from any cause compared with fresher packed red blood cells. No trial included other outcomes of interest specified in this review, namely transfusion-related acute lung injury, postoperative infections, and adverse events. The safety profile is unknown. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Recognising the limitations of the review, relating to the size and nature of the included trials, this Cochrane Review provides no evidence to support or reject the use of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion which have been stored for > 21 days ('prolonged' or 'older') compared with those stored for < 21 days ('fresh'). These results are based on three small single centre trials with high risks of bias. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of fresh or older packed red blood cells for blood transfusion. Therefore, we urge readers to interpret the trial results with caution. The results from four large ongoing trials will help to inform future updates of this review.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia in rheumatoid arthritis
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013;2:CD000332.
BACKGROUND Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disorder that mainly affects the small joints of the hands and feet. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been used to treat anemia, one of the extra-articular manifestations of RA. Although anemia is less of a problem now because of the reduction in inflammation due to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), it could still be an issue in countries where DMARDs are not yet accessible. OBJECTIVES We assessed the clinical benefits and harms of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia in rheumatoid arthritis. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (issue 7 2012), Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1948 to 7 August 2012), OVID EMBASE (1980 to 7 August 2012), LILACS (1982 to 7 August 2012), the Clinical Trials Search Portal of the World Health Organization, reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients aged 16 years or over, with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis affected by anemia. We considered health-related quality of life, fatigue and safety as the primary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors independently performed trial selection, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. We estimated difference in means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. We estimated risk ratios with 95% CIs for binary outcomes. MAIN RESULTS We included three RCTs with a total of 133 participants. All trials compared human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO), for different durations (8, 12 and 52 weeks), versus placebo. All RCTs assessed health-related quality of life. All trials had high or unclear risk of bias for most domains, and were sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. Two trials administered EPO by a subcutaneous route while the other used an intravenous route.We decided not to pool results from trials, due to inconsistencies in the reporting of results.Health-related quality of life: subcutaneous EPO - one trial with 70 patients at 52 weeks showed a statistically significant difference in improvement of patient global assessment (median and interquartile range 3.5 (1.0 to 6.0) compared with placebo 4.5 (2.0 to 7.5) (P = 0.027) on a VAS scale (0 to 10)). The other shorter term trials (12 weeks with subcutaneous EPO and eight weeks with intravenous administration) did not find statistically significant differences between treatment and control groups in health-related quality of life outcomes.Change in hemoglobin: both trials of subcutaneous EPO showed a statistically significant difference in increasing hemoglobin levels; (i) at 52 weeks (one trial, 70 patients), intervention hemoglobin level (median 134, interquartile range 110 to 158 g/litre) compared with the placebo group level (median 112, interquartile range; 86 to 128 g/litre) (P = 0.0001); (ii) at 12 weeks (one trial, 24 patients) compared with placebo (difference in means 8.00, 95% CI 7.43 to 8.57). Intravenous EPO at eight weeks showed no statistically significant difference in increasing hematocrit level for EPO versus placebo (difference in means 4.69, 95% CI -0.17 to 9.55; P = 0.06).Information on withdrawals due to adverse events was not reported in two trials, and one trial found no serious adverse events leading to withdrawals. None of the trials reported withdrawals due to high blood pressure, or to lack of efficacy or to fatigue. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found conflicting evidence for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to increase quality of life and hemoglobin level by treating anemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, this conclusion is based on randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias, and relies on trials assessing human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO). The safety profile of EPO is unclear. Future trials assessing erythropoiesis-stimulating agents fo