Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment-refractory relapsing multiple sclerosis: Position statement from the american society for blood and marrow transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, immune-mediated, central nervous system demyelinating and degenerative disease. Approved disease modifying therapies may be incompletely effective in some patients with highly active relapsing disease and high risk of disability. Immunoablative or myeloablative therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) has been investigated in retrospective studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses/systematic reviews as an approach to address this unmet clinical need. On behalf of the American Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), a panel of experts in AHCT and MS convened to review available evidence and make recommendations on MS as an indication for AHCT. Review of recent literature identified eight retrospective studies, eight clinical trials, and three meta-analyses/systematic reviews. In aggregate, these studies indicate that AHCT is an efficacious and safe treatment for active relapsing forms of MS to prevent clinical relapses, MRI lesion activity, and disability worsening, and to reverse disability, without unexpected adverse events. Based on the available evidence, the ASBMT recommends that treatment-refractory relapsing MS with high risk of future disability be considered a "standard of care, clinical evidence available" indication for AHCT. Collaboration of neurologists with expertise in treating MS and transplant physicians with experience performing AHCT for autoimmune disease is crucial for appropriate patient selection and optimizing transplant procedures to improve patient outcomes. Transplant centers in the United States and Canada are strongly encouraged to report baseline and outcomes data on patients receiving AHCT for multiple sclerosis to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
Reduced dose intravenous immunoglobulin does not decrease transplant-related complications in adults given related donor marrow allografts
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1999;5((6):):369-78.
Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) given at a dose of 500 mg/kg/wk has been shown to decrease the risk of acute GVHD, interstitial pneumonia, and infection in adults early after allogeneic transplantation. The current study is a controlled trial to determine whether a lower total dose of IVIg given with pretransplant loading reduces the incidence of transplant-related complications. In a randomized trial of 241 patients > or =20 years of age who were given related donor marrow allografts, 121 individuals receiving Ig prophylaxis (500 mg/kg/d loading from day -6 to -1 and then 100 mg/kg every 3 days from day 3 to 90) were compared with 120 control patients who did not receive IVIg. Randomization was stratified by human leucocyte antigen-matching, remission status of malignancy, GVHD prophylaxis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology. The study was powered to detect a reduction in acute GVHD by 18% and a decrease in transplant-related mortality by 17%. Pretransplant IVIg loading and posttransplant maintenance achieved median serum IgG levels >1350 mg/dL, which were approximately twofold greater than the untreated controls (p<0.01). White blood cell and platelet recoveries were similar for the two groups, although control patients required fewer units of platelets per day (2.5 vs. 3.3, p = 0.008). No significant differences in the incidence of CMV infection, interstitial pneumonia, or bacteremia were observed. The incidence of acute GVHD did not differ between the two groups; however, acute GVHD was less frequent among IVIg recipients achieving maximum serum IgG levels >3000 mg/dL (60 vs. 79%). Neither transplant-related mortality nor disease-free survival was significantly altered by Ig prophylaxis. However, the cumulative incidence of relapse of malignancy was higher in IVIg recipients than in controls (31 vs. 18%, p = 0.03). Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated a 1.89 increased relative risk of relapse for individuals given IVIg (p = 0.021). We conclude that pretransplant loading and a shorter course and lower total dose of IVIg prophylaxis did not appear to decrease the risk of acute GVHD or mortality among adults receiving related donor marrow transplants. Note, IVIg administration may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent malignancy, a finding that warrants further investigation.
Intravenous immunoglobulin and the risk of hepatic veno-occlusive disease after bone marrow transplantation
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1998;4((1):):20-6.
Recent reports using historical controls or registry cohorts suggest, respectively, either an increase in the mortality or a decrease in the incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) with the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (i.v.Ig) after bone marrow transplantation. These divergent results prompted us to conduct a retrospective analysis of two randomized clinical trials conducted at our center to determine the effect of i.v.Ig infusions on the development and severity of VOD. Patients were randomized to receive (n=318) or not to receive (n=315) i.v.Ig prophylaxis after human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling (n=414), mismatched or unrelated (n=178), or autologous or syngeneic (n=41) marrow transplantation. To determine the relationship of i.v.Ig to the development and severity of VOD, a single observer reviewed data displays created for each patient for grading VOD without knowledge of patient i.v.Ig use. In this analysis, VOD was defined as hyperbilirubinemia > or =2.0 mg/dL before day 20 and abrupt weight gain > or =2% before day 14 posttransplant in the absence of other causes of liver disease. Hepatic VOD developed in 235 (37%) of the 633 randomized patients. No evidence for VOD was found in 230 (36%) patients. The remaining 168 (27%) patients were classified as having liver disease of uncertain etiology. Hepatic VOD was judged to be severe in 63 (10%) and mild or moderate in 172 (27%) patients. The number of patients developing any VOD or severe VOD was similar between those randomized to i.v.Ig prophylaxis and untreated controls (115 vs. 120 and 32 vs. 31, respectively). Logistic regression models identified several covariates as significant (p < 0.01) factors associated with the development of severe VOD. Increased risk occurred with elevated pretransplant serum aspartate aminotransferase (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64) and earlier year of transplant (OR = 3.73); decreased risk occurred with autologous or twin donors (OR = 0.09) and acute myeloid leukemia (OR = 0.39). The development of any VOD was associated with an elevated pretransplant alkaline phosphatase (OR = 4.1), pretransplant use of vancomycin (OR = 1.6) or amphotericin (OR = 3.0), posttransplant use of cyclosporine (OR = 2.5), older patient age (OR = 1.03), and obesity (OR = 0.78). We concluded from the controlled trials of 633 patients that the administration of i.v.Ig did not influence the development or severity of VOD after bone marrow transplantation.
A controlled trial of long-term administration of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent late infection and chronic graft-vs.-host disease after marrow transplantation: clinical outcome and effect on subsequent immune recovery
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 1996;2((1):):44-53.
To determine whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) given monthly from day 90 to day 360 posttransplantation decreased the incidence of late infection, chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), and obliterative bronchiolitis after marrow transplantation, patients were assigned randomly to receive either IVIg (500 mg/kg/month) or no IVIg prophylaxis. Participants were registered before transplantation, and 250 patients (123 IVIg and 127 control) were evaluable for events after day 100. The two groups were balanced for age, marrow source, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity, pretransplantation conditioning, and prophylaxis for infection and GVHD. Between days 100 and 365 posttransplantation, the incidence of bacteremia or septicemia per 100 patient-days of risk was 0.10 in the IVIg group and 0.12 in the controls (p = not significant). During the same period, the incidence of localized infection was marginally higher in control patients than in IVIg recipients (0.44 vs. 0.24, respectively; relative risk [RR] 1.46, p < 0.07). Administration of IVIg prophylaxis had no effect on survival, the incidence of obliterative bronchiolitis, severity of airflow obstruction, or the incidence or mortality of chronic GVHD. After discontinuing IVIg prophylaxis at day 360, subsequent recovery of endogeneous humoral immunity was impaired (serum IgG1 and IgA levels were significantly lower than controls at day 730), and total infections were less common in the second year in control patients than in former IVIg recipients (0.12 vs 0.19, respectively; RR 0.61, p = 0.03). We conclude that in the absence of hypogammaglobulinemia, monthly administration of IVIg given from day 90 to 360 does not reduce late complications and may impair long-term humoral immune recovery after marrow transplantation.
The supportive care role of IVIG in BMT recipients
British Journal of Haematology. 1992;82((1):):273
Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in bone marrow transplantation
New England Journal of Medicine. 1990;323((11):):705-12.
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Since intravenous immunoglobulin has shown benefit in several immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders, we studied its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory role after marrow transplantation. METHODS In a randomized trial of 382 patients, transplant recipients given immunoglobulin (500 mg per kilogram of body weight weekly to day 90, then monthly to day 360 after transplantation) were compared with controls not given immunoglobulin. By chance, the immunoglobulin group included more patients with advanced-stage neoplasms; otherwise, the study groups were balanced for prognostic factors. RESULTS Control patients seronegative for cytomegalovirus who received seronegative blood products remained seronegative, but seronegative patients who received immunoglobulin and screened blood had a passive transfer of cytomegalovirus antibody (median titer, 1:64). Among the 61 seronegative patients who could be evaluated, none contracted interstitial pneumonia; among the 308 seropositive patients evaluated, 22 percent of control patients and 13 percent of immunoglobulin recipients had this complication (P = 0.021). Control patients had an increased risk of gram-negative septicemia (relative risk = 2.65, P = 0.0039) and local infection (relative risk = 1.36, P = 0.029) and received 51 more units of platelets than did immunoglobulin recipients. Neither survival nor the risk of relapse was altered by immunoglobulin. However, among patients greater than or equal to 20 years old, there was a reduction in the incidence of acute GVHD (51 percent in controls vs. 34 percent in immunoglobulin recipients; P = 0.0051) and a decrease in deaths due to transplant-related causes after transplantation of HLA-identical marrow (46 percent vs. 30 percent; P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS Passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin decreases the risk of acute GVHD, associated interstitial pneumonia, and infections after bone marrow transplantation.
Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin in bone marrow transplantation
Blood. 1988;72((5, Suppl 1):):410a.. Abstract No. 1550.
The effect of prophylactic intravenous immune globulin on the incidence of septicemia in marrow transplant recipients
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 1987;2((2):):141-7.
Ninety-seven patients randomized to receive (45 patients) or not to receive (52 patients) intravenous cytomegalovirus immune globulin before and after allogeneic marrow transplantation were evaluated retrospectively for the occurrence of bacterial and fungal septicemia in the first 100 days post-transplant. In a proportional hazards regression test, infection prevention regimens, immunoglobulin administration, age and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease were tested simultaneously for the occurrence of septicemia in the pre- and post-engraftment period. Of these factors, only patients receiving immunoglobulin had significantly fewer episodes of septicemia following engraftment with 11 (26%) patients in the globulin group having 14 episodes compared to 22 (42%) patients in the control group having 27 episodes (p = 0.039). None of the patients experienced complications with the immunoglobulin infusions. These results suggest that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin may be a practical and effective method to decrease the incidence of septicemia following marrow transplantation.