Sex Differences in Blood Pressure-Lowering Therapy and Outcomes Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Results From ATACH-2
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Evidence regarding sex differences in clinical outcomes and treatment effect following intracerebral hemorrhage is limited. Using the ATACH-2 trial (Antihypertensive Treatment in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-2) data, we explored whether sex disparities exist in outcomes and response to intensive blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy. METHODS Eligible intracerebral hemorrhage subjects were randomly assigned to intensive (target systolic BP, 110-139 mm Hg) or standard (140-179 mm Hg) BP-lowering therapy within 4.5 hours after onset. Relative risk of death or disability corresponding to the modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6 was calculated, and interaction between sex and treatment was explored. RESULTS In total, 380 women and 620 men were included. Women were older, more prescribed antihypertensive drugs before onset, and had more lobar intracerebral hemorrhage than men. Hematoma expansion was observed less in women. After multivariable adjustment, the relative risk of death or disability in women was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02-1.37, P=0.023). The relative risk of death or disability between intensive versus standard BP-lowering therapy was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-1.13) in women versus 1.13 (95% CI, 0.92-1.39) in men (P for interaction=0.11), with inconclusive Gail-Simmon test (P=0.16). CONCLUSIONS Women had a higher risk of death or disability following intracerebral hemorrhage. The benefit of intensive BP-lowering therapy in women is inconclusive, consistent with the overall results of ATACH-2. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01176565.
Application of cryoprecipitate as a hematostatic glue
Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. 1998;39((5):):609-12.
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of cryoprecipitate, harvested from a patient's own fresh frozen plasma, for use in cardiac surgery as a hematostatic glue was studied in 32 randomized elective adult cardiac surgery patients from January 1993 to July 1994. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients from the Toho Sakura Hospital were randomly allocated to two groups: Group 1 (n=11) received conventional fibrin glue presently available in our institution; while Group 2 (n=21) received autologous cryoprecipitate as a hematostatic glue. Surgical procedures broken down by group were as follows: Group 1: 4 CABG, 5 valvular surgeries and 2 other. Group 2: 11 CABG, 6 valvular surgery, 4 other. We preserved the patient's own blood and stored pure red cell and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Cryoprecipitate was prepared from the FFP and preserved until required. RESULTS Cryoprecipitate had a 5-fold increase in fibrinogen activity (1190+/-311 mg/dl vs 238+/-34 mg/dl p<0.001), a 10-fold increase in factor VIII activity (362+/-219% vs 34+/-11%, p=0.001), and 4.5-fold increase in factor XIII activity (538+/-213% vs 119+/-50%, p<0.001), compared to serum. The amount of bleeding postoperatively was slightly lower in the cryoprecipitate glue group compared to the conventional glue group, but this was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that autologous samples of human cryoprecipitate prepared from a patient's own FFP had a strong hematostatic effect compared to conventional fibrin glue and was a very valuable hematostatic agent during cardiac surgery.