Clinical efficacy and safety of neuroendoscopic surgery for severe thalamic hemorrhage with ventricle encroachment
Neurosurgical review. 2022
To summarize and analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of neuroendoscopic surgery (NES) in the treatment of patients for severe thalamic hemorrhage with ventricle encroachment (THVE). Eighty-three patients with severe THVE were treated in the Neurosurgery Department of Anqing Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University from July 2019 to August 2021. Our study was approved by the ethics committee. The patients were randomly divided into NES group and extraventricular drainage (EVD) group. The hospital stay, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores on the 1st and 14th days postoperatively, the incidence of intracranial infections, and the clearance of postoperative hematomas were compared and analyzed between the two groups. The patients had follow-up evaluations 6 months postoperatively. The prognosis was evaluated based on the activity of daily living (ADL) score. A head CT or MRI was obtained to determine whether there was hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, or other related complications. Eighty-three patients were randomly divided into 41 cases of NES group and 42 cases of EVD group. The length of postoperative hospital stay was 17.42 ± 1.53 days, the GCS scores were 6.56 ± 0.21, and 10.83 ± 0.36 on days 1 and 14, respectively; intracranial infections occurred in 3 patients (7.31%) and the hematoma clearance rate was 83.6 ± 5.18% in the NES group, all of which were significantly better than the EVD group (P < 0.05). After 6 months of follow-up, 28 patients (68.29%) had a good prognosis, 5 patients (12.19%) died, and 4 patients (9.75%) had hydrocephalus in the NES group. In the EVD group, the prognosis was good in 15 patients (35.71%), 12 patients (28.57%) died, and 17 patients (40.47%) had hydrocephalus. The prognosis, mortality rate, and incidence of hydrocephalus in the NES group were significantly better than the EVD group (P < 0.05). Compared to traditional EVD, NES for severe THVE had a higher hematoma clearance rate, and fewer intracranial infections and patients with hydrocephalus, which together improve the clinical prognosis and is thus recommended for clinical use.
Clinical Features in Children With Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736352
Objective: This study aimed to identify the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) in children. Methods: The case-control studies of KDSS and KD children up until April 30, 2021 were searched in multiple databases. The qualified research were retrieved by manually reviewing the references. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of male and female in children with KDSS. Children with KDSS compared with non-shocked KD, there were significant difference in age, duration of fever, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils (NEUT%), platelet count (PLT), c-reactive protein level (CRP), alanine transaminase concentration (ALT), aspartate transaminase concentration (AST), albumin concentration (ALB), sodium concentration (Na), ejection fraction, and length of hospitalization as well as the incidence of coronary artery dilation, coronary artery aneurysm, left ventricular dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, pericardial effusion, initial diagnosis of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and receiving second dose of IVIG, vasoactive drugs, hormones, and albumin. In contrast, there was no difference in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the incidence of conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal change, polymorphous rash, extremity change, and incomplete KD. Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that the children with KDSS had more severe indicators of inflammation and more cardiac abnormalities. These patients were resistant to immunoglobulin treatment and required extra anti-inflammatory treatment. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021241207.
The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the management of perioperative bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Journal of endourology. 2021
INTRODUCTION We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature to assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in the management of postoperative bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). METHODS A systematic literature review was performed in March 2021. Two reviewers independently screened, identified, and evaluated comparative studies assessing the effectiveness of TXA in preventing bleeding following PCNL when compared to placebo or no intervention. The incidence of transfusion, complete stone clearance, and complications were extracted among TXA and control groups to generate the Risk Ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) drop, length of hospital stays, and operative (OR) time were analysed using standard mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% CI. Effect estimates were pooled using the inverse-variance approach with a random-effect model. RESULTS A total of 11 studies (8 randomized controlled trial, 1 prospective cohort, 2 retrospective cohort studies; total 1842 patients) of low-to-moderate-quality were included in the meta-analysis. Overall pooled effect estimates demonstrated a decreased transfusion rate (RR 0.36; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.51), blood loss (SMD -0.74; 95% CI -1.14 to -0.34) and Hb drop (SMD -0.95; 95% CI -1.51 to -0.39) among patients in the TXA group when compared to those in the control. The number needed to treat was 11 to prevent one transfusion. Patients who received TXA also had improved stone clearance (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14), lower minor (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.89) and major (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.69) complications, shorter hospital stays (SMD -0.52; 95% CI -1.01 to -0.04) and decreased OR time (SMD -0.89; 95% CI -1.46 to -0.31). CONCLUSIONS TXA can effectively reduce postoperative bleeding following PCNL. Future studies should identify a subset of patients who may benefit from preoperative TXA administration for PCNL.
Transfusions and cost-benefit of oral versus intravenous tranexamic acid in primary total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the cost benefit and transfusions of oral and IV tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral and IV TXA in primary THA. Primary outcomes were total blood loss, maximum hemoglobin drop, transfusion requirements, and cost benefit. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS Four independent RCTs were included involving 391 patients. There was no difference in the total blood loss (P = .99), maximum hemoglobin drop (P = .73), and the length of stay (P = .95) between the 2 groups. Transfusion requirements (P = .97) were similar. The total mean cost was the US $75.41 in oral TXA group and the US $580.83 in IV TXA group. The incidence of DVT (P = .3) did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, and no PE was reported in all studies. CONCLUSION Oral TXA shows similar efficacy and safety as IV TXA in reducing total blood loss, maximum hemoglobin drop and transfusion requirements in primary THA. However, oral TXA may be more cost-benefit than IV TXA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, therapeutic study.
Optimal sequence of surgical procedures for hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fracture: A network meta-analysis
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2018
BACKGROUND The mortality rate of patients with hemodynamic instability due to severe pelvic fracture remains substantial and massive transfusion happens frequently. Angio-embolization, external fixation and preperitoneal pelvic packing of the pelvis are the main managements used to control bleeding in these patients. In this paper, we aimed at characterizing the rationale of these surgical managements, and placed them in optimal management algorithm to compose a new guideline. METHODS We selected controlled trials, assessing safety of management for the intervention of hemorrhagic shock from mortality data, and assessing efficacy from volume of first 24h blood transfusion following hospitalization. Six single and combined managements were extracted as comparison. A pairwise meta-analysis was conducted using a random effect model, and then the analysis was extended to a network meta-analysis. Pooled effect sizes were ranked and demonstrated the probability of being the best treatments for safety and efficacy. RESULTS 13 clinical trials and 24,396 participants were identified for this analysis. The assessment of rank probability indicated that pelvic packing presented the greatest likelihood of improving safety, while external fixation was indicated most efficient among the interventions for controlling hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS Clinical protocols for guidelines of hemodynamically unstable pelvic fracture patients have been multidirectionally developed. We strongly support the initial application of an external fixator. Provided that patients remain hemodynamically unstable after application of an external fixation, pelvic packing is the next procedure to consider. Angio-embolization is the complementary but not alternative method of choice subsequently.