Comparison of the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets vs untreated platelets in patients with thrombocytopenia and malignant hematologic diseases: a randomized clinical trial
Jama Oncology. 2018;4((4):):468-475
Importance: Pathogen reduction of platelet concentrates may reduce transfusion-transmitted infections but is associated with qualitative impairment, which could have clinical significance with regard to platelet hemostatic capacity. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of platelets in additive solution treated with amotosalen-UV-A vs untreated platelets in plasma or in additive solution in patients with thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancies. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelets Treated With Pathogen Reduction Process (EFFIPAP) study was a randomized, noninferiority, 3-arm clinical trial performed from May 16, 2013, through January 21, 2016, at 13 French tertiary university hospitals. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily until the end of aplasia, transfer to another department, need for a specific platelet product, or 30 days after enrollment. Consecutive adult patients with bone marrow aplasia, expected hospital stay of more than 10 days, and expected need of platelet transfusions were included. Interventions: At least 1 transfusion of platelets in additive solution with amotosalen-UV-A treatment, in plasma, or in additive solution. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of patients with grade 2 or higher bleeding as defined by World Health Organization criteria. Results: Among 790 evaluable patients (mean [SD] age, 55 [13.4] years; 458 men [58.0%]), the primary end point was observed in 126 receiving pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution (47.9%; 95% CI, 41.9%-54.0%), 114 receiving platelets in plasma (43.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-49.5%), and 120 receiving platelets in additive solution (45.3%; 95% CI, 39.3%-51.3%). With a per-protocol population with a prespecified margin of 12.5%, noninferiority was not achieved when pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution were compared with platelets in plasma (4.4%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 12.9%) but was achieved when the pathogen-reduced platelets were compared with platelets in additive solution (2.6%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 11.1%). The proportion of patients with grade 3 or 4 bleeding was not different among treatment arms. Conclusions and Relevance: Although the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets in thrombopenic patients with hematologic malignancies was noninferior to platelets in additive solution, such noninferiority was not achieved when comparing pathogen-reduced platelets with platelets in plasma. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01789762.
Plasma transfusion in liver transplantation: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical comparison of three virally secured plasmas
BACKGROUND The clinical equivalence of plasma treated to reduce pathogen transmission and untreated plasma has not been extensively studied. A clinical trial was conducted in liver transplant recipients to compare the efficacy of three plasmas. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized, equivalence, blinded trial was performed in four French liver transplantation centers. The three studied (fresh-frozen) plasmas were quarantine (Q-FFP), methylene blue (MB-FFP), and solvent/detergent (S/D-FFP) plasmas. The primary outcome was the volume of plasma transfused during transplantation. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative blood loss, hemostasis variables corrections, and adverse events. RESULTS One-hundred patients were randomly assigned in the MB-FFP, 96 in the S/D-FFP, and 97 in the Q-FFP groups, respectively. The median volumes of plasma transfused were 2254, 1905, and 1798 mL with MB-FFP, S/D-FFP, and Q-FFP, respectively. The three plasmas were not equivalent. MB-FFP was not equivalent to the two other plasmas, but S/D-FFP and Q-FFP were equivalent. The median numbers of transfused plasma units were 10, 10, and 8 units with MB-FFP, S/D-FFP, and Q-FFP, respectively. Adjustment on bleeding risk factors diminished the difference between groups: the excess plasma volume transfused with MB-FFP compared to Q-FFP was reduced from 24% to 14%. Blood loss and coagulation factors corrections were not significantly different between the three arms. CONCLUSION Compared to both Q-FFP and S/D-FFP, use of MB-FFP was associated with a moderate increase in volume transfused, partly explained by a difference in unit volume and bleeding risk factors. Q-FFP was associated with fewer units transfused than either S/D-FFP or MB-FFP. 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
A multi-centre study of therapeutic efficacy and safety of platelet components treated with amotosalen and ultraviolet A pathogen inactivation stored for 6 or 7 d prior to transfusion
British Journal of Haematology. 2011;153((3):):393-401.
Bacteria in platelet components (PC) may result in transfusion-related sepsis (TRS). Pathogen inactivation of PC with amotosalen (A-PC) can abrogate the risk of TRS and hence facilitate storage to 7 d. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of A-PC stored for 6-7 d was conducted. Patients were randomized to receive one transfusion of conventional PC (C-PC) or A-PC stored for 6-7 d. The primary endpoint was the 1 h corrected count increment (CCI) with an acceptable inferiority of 30%. Secondary endpoints included 1- and 24-h count increment (CI), 24-h CCI, time to next PC transfusion, red blood cell (RBC) use, bleeding and adverse events. 101 and 100 patients received A-PC or C-PC respectively. The ratio of 1-h CCI (A-PC:C-PC) was 0·87 (95% confidence interval: 0·73, 1·03) demonstrating non-inferiority (P = 0·007), with respective mean 1-h CCIs of 8163 and 9383; mean 1-h CI was not significantly different. Post-transfusion bleeding and RBC use were not significantly different (P = 0·44, P = 0·82 respectively). Median time to the next PC transfusion after study PC was not significantly different between groups: (2·2 vs. 2·3 d, P = 0·72). Storage of A-PCs for 6-7 d had no impact on platelet efficacy.
Prevention of HLA immunization with leukocyte-poor packed red cells and platelet concentrates obtained by filtration
HLA immunization is a common complication of transfusion therapy in 30% to 60% of oncohematologic patients. Evidence shows that leukocytes present in cellular blood products are the main component involved in the occurrence of HLA immunization, and several studies showed that leukocyte-poor blood products are less able to induce it. However, leukocyte-poor platelet concentrates obtained by conventional techniques, ie, centrifugation, frequently have a high level of remaining leukocytes. Cotton wool filter Imugard IG 500 can be used to obtain leukocyte-poor cellular blood products. The technique is easy to perform, even in an emergency, and can be used with either packed RBCs or platelet concentrates. Means of 97%, 92%, and 76% elimination of leukocytes are obtained for packed RBCs, pooled standard platelet concentrates, and single-donor platelet concentrates, respectively. Patients were randomized to receive either standard (control group) or filtered (leukocyte-poor group) blood products. Of 112 randomized patients, 69 were evaluable, 35 in the control group and 34 in the leukocyte-poor group. Both groups are comparable according to age, diagnosis, sex ratio, previous transfusions, and pregnancies. There is a significant difference in regard to the HLA immunization rate (31.4% in the control v 11.7% in the leukocyte-poor group, P less than .05) and frequency of refractoriness to platelet transfusions (46.6% v 11.7%, P less than .05). We conclude that this filtration technique can be an efficient means to reduce the HLA immunization rate in polytransfused oncohematologic patients.