Safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2022;215:107205
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a fatal and debilitating condition killing 2.7 million people each year worldwide. The most commonly used treatment modality for AIS is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase which is indicated for those presenting within 4.5 h of onset. Due to a lack of reliable evidence on harm or benefit, the 2019 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines consider a history of previous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) as potentially harmful and no longer an absolute contraindication for IVT in patients with AIS, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed chronic ICH as a specific contraindication for IVT from the label in 2015. Despite a shift in guidelines, physicians frequently face the dilemmatic choice whether to administer IVT in this subset of patients due to the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). The benefit of IVT in such patients has not been thoroughly investigated, and there are only a few studies on the subject in the literature to date. We conducted the present meta-analysis in an aim to provide solid evidence on the efficacy and safety of IVT for treating AIS in patients with a history of remote ICH. Our meta-analysis found that IVT improves functional outcomes in AIS patients with prior remote ICH without increasing SICH or all-cause mortality. These findings may contribute to the decision-making process for IVT administration in AIS patients.
Comparative Study of Slow Infusion versus Bolus Doses of Albumin and Furosemide Infusion to Mobilize Refractory Ascites in Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council. 2020;18(2):233-237
BACKGROUND Combined use of furosemide with albumin is an approved therapy to overcome diuretic resistance in treatment of ascites in decompensated chronic liver disease. Bolus dosing of diuretics has its own limitations due to pre-existing hypotension, post diuretic sodium retention and braking phenomenon. Slow albumin and furosemide Infusion has been shown to mobilize large ascites with improved diuresis and hemodynamic stability in decompensated chronic liver disease. This study was undertaken to compare efficacy and safety of infusion therapy vs bolus therapy in term the management of refractory ascites. METHODS Decompensated chronic liver disease patients with refractory ascites were randomly assigned into two groups of 15 each - Bolus therapy (intravenous albumin and furosemide as boluses) and Infusion therapy (furosemide infusion at 2mg/hour and albumin at 2g/hour for three days). Diuresis, natriuresis, change in abdominal girth and body weight, and hemodynamic stability (change in SBP) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS Infusion therapy, as compared to bolus therapy, showed a significantly better diuresis (mean urinary output increment 483ml vs 243ml, p <0.001), natriuresis (mean urinary sodium excretion increment 35.2 mEq/L vs 16.6 mEq/L, p = 0.004),decrease in abdominal circumference (6.1cm vs 3.0cm, p<0.001) and decrease in body weight (5.53 Kg vs 2.86 Kg, p < 0.001). The complications of renal impairment were also lower in the Infusion group. CONCLUSION Infusion of furosemide and albumin is a potential safer and effective therapeutic option in the management of refractory ascites with better natriuresis, higher urine output, and higher decrement in abdominal circumference and body weight, and lesser side effects.