Nanoparticle Albumin-bound Paclitaxel Plus Carboplatin Induction Followed by Nanoparticle Albumin-bound Paclitaxel Maintenance in Squamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer (ABOUND.sqm): A Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial
Clinical lung cancer. 2020
BACKGROUND We evaluated maintenance nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with treatment-naive squamous non-small-cell lung cancer received four 21-day cycles of nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 15 plus carboplatin area under the curve 6 on day 1 as induction therapy. Patients without disease progression after induction were randomized 2:1 to maintenance nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m(2) (days 1 and 8 every 21 days) plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included safety and overall survival (OS). RESULTS Overall, 420 patients had received induction therapy; 202 (nab-paclitaxel plus BSC, 136; BSC, 66) had received maintenance therapy. Enrollment was discontinued after a preplanned interim futility analysis (patients could remain in the study at the investigator's discretion). The median PFS was 3.12 months for nab-paclitaxel plus BSC and 2.60 months for BSC; the difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.19; P = .36). The median OS (median follow-up, 24.2 months) was 17.18 months for nab-paclitaxel plus BSC and 12.16 months for BSC (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48-1.02; nominal P = .07). An updated analysis (median follow-up, 28.4 months) revealed a median OS of 17.61 months for nab-paclitaxel plus BSC and 12.16 months for BSC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98; nominal P = .037). The most frequent grade 3 and 4 treatment-emergent adverse events for the entire study were neutropenia (53.1% [nab-paclitaxel plus BSC] vs. 50.0% [BSC]) and anemia (33.1% [nab-paclitaxel plus BSC] vs. 32.3% [BSC]). Only peripheral neuropathy had occurred in ≥ 5% of patients during maintenance therapy (13.1%; nab-paclitaxel plus BSC). CONCLUSIONS The results of the ABOUND.sqm did not meet the primary endpoint of PFS. An updated OS analysis revealed a trend favoring nab-paclitaxel plus BSC.
Beta-Blockade in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2020
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Sympathetic nervous system activation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with complications and poor outcome. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the effect of beta-blockers on outcome after aSAH. METHODS The review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019111784). We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, published conference proceedings, and abstracts. Eligible studies included both randomized controlled trials and observational studies up to October 2018, reporting the effect of beta-blocker therapy on the following outcomes in aSAH: mortality, vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, infarction or stroke, cardiac dysfunction, and functional outcomes. Studies involving traumatic SAH were excluded. Citations were reviewed, and data extracted independently by two investigators using a standardized proforma. RESULTS We identified 819 records with 16 studies (four were randomized controlled trials) including 6702 patients selected for analysis. Exposure to beta-blockade either before or after aSAH was associated with a significant reduction in unadjusted mortality (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.93, p = 0.02). A significant reduction in unadjusted mortality was also seen in prospective trials of post-event beta-blockade (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93, p = 0.03). Statistically significant differences were not seen for other outcomes investigated. CONCLUSIONS In adult patients with aSAH, beta-blocker therapy is associated with a mortality benefit. Studies are generally of a low quality with considerable clinical heterogeneity. Prospective large interventional trials with patient centered outcomes are required to validate this finding.
Temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts in piggy-back liver transplantation reduce intraoperative blood loss and improve postoperative transaminases and renal function: a meta-analysis
World Journal of Surgery. 2016;40((12):):2988-2998
BACKGROUND The value of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts (TPCS) in cava-sparing liver transplantation is discussed controversially. Aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the impact of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts on liver injury, primary non-function, time of surgery, transfusion of blood products and length of hospital stay in cava-sparing liver transplantation. METHODS A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO retrieved a total of 909 articles, of which six articles were included. The combined effect size and 95 % confidence interval were calculated for each outcome by applying the inverse variance weighting method. Tests for heterogeneity (I 2) were also utilized. RESULTS Usage of a TPCS was associated with significantly decreased AST values, significantly fewer transfusions of packed red blood cells and improved postoperative renal function. There were no statistically significant differences in primary graft non-function, length of hospital stay or duration of surgery. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis found that temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts in cava-sparing liver transplantation reduce blood loss as well as hepatic injury and enhance postoperative renal function without prolonging operative time. Randomized controlled trials investigating the use of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts are needed to confirm these findings.
A randomized trial of factor VIII and neutralizing antibodies in hemophilia A
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;374((21)):2054-64.
BACKGROUND The development of neutralizing anti-factor VIII alloantibodies (inhibitors) in patients with severe hemophilia A may depend on the concentrate used for replacement therapy. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial to assess the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors among patients treated with plasma-derived factor VIII containing von Willebrand factor or recombinant factor VIII. Patients who met the eligibility criteria (male sex, age <6 years, severe hemophilia A, and no previous treatment with any factor VIII concentrate or only minimal treatment with blood components) were included from 42 sites. RESULTS Of 303 patients screened, 264 underwent randomization and 251 were analyzed. Inhibitors developed in 76 patients, 50 of whom had high-titer inhibitors (≥5 Bethesda units). Inhibitors developed in 29 of the 125 patients treated with plasma-derived factor VIII (20 patients had high-titer inhibitors) and in 47 of the 126 patients treated with recombinant factor VIII (30 patients had high-titer inhibitors). The cumulative incidence of all inhibitors was 26.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.4 to 35.2) with plasma-derived factor VIII and 44.5% (95% CI, 34.7 to 54.3) with recombinant factor VIII; the cumulative incidence of high-titer inhibitors was 18.6% (95% CI, 11.2 to 26.0) and 28.4% (95% CI, 19.6 to 37.2), respectively. In Cox regression models for the primary end point of all inhibitors, recombinant factor VIII was associated with an 87% higher incidence than plasma-derived factor VIII (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.96). This association did not change in multivariable analysis. For high-titer inhibitors, the hazard ratio was 1.69 (95% CI, 0.96 to 2.98). When the analysis was restricted to recombinant factor VIII products other than second-generation full-length recombinant factor VIII, effect estimates remained similar for all inhibitors (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 0.99 to 3.97) and high-titer inhibitors (hazard ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.11 to 6.00). CONCLUSIONS Patients treated with plasma-derived factor VIII containing von Willebrand factor had a lower incidence of inhibitors than those treated with recombinant factor VIII. (Funded by the Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01064284; EudraCT number, 2009-011186-88.).
Source of factor VIII replacement (PLASMATIC OR RECOMBINANT) and incidence of inhibitory alloantibodies in previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia a: the multicenter randomized sippet study
Blood. 2015;126((23)): Abstract No. 5.
Darbepoetin alfa once monthly corrects anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis
AIM: While darbepoetin alfa (DA) can be administered once monthly (QM) to maintain haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis (CKD-ND), the QM use of DA for anaemia correction has not been previously investigated. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority, active-controlled study, adult subjects with CKD-ND, Hb levels <10g/dL, and not treated with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent were randomized 1:1 to receive DA every 2 weeks (Q2W) or QM for 33 weeks with initial doses of 0.75mug/kg Q2W or 1.5mug/kg QM. Subjects were treated to target Hb levels of 10-12g/dL and >1g/dL increase from baseline. The primary end-point was Hb change between baseline and the evaluation period (weeks 29-33), with a non-inferiority margin of -0.5g/dL. RESULTS Three hundred and fifty-five subjects received >1 dose of DA. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in Hb between baseline and the evaluation period was 2.16 (1.98-2.33) g/dL for the Q2W group and 1.97 (1.80-2.14) g/dL for the QM group, the mean (95% CI) difference in Hb change being -0.19 (-0.43 to 0.05) g/dL. Most subjects (97.9% Q2W; 98.1% QM) achieved a Hb level >10.0g/dL and >1.0g/dL increase in Hb from baseline. Mean DA (SD) weekly equivalent doses over the evaluation period were 0.20 (0.23) and 0.27 (0.31) mug/kg per week for the Q2W and QM groups, respectively. Safety profiles were similar between groups. CONCLUSION In subjects with CKD-ND, QM dosing was non-inferior to Q2W dosing for anaemia correction and had a similar safety profile. 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Evaluation of a gastric delivery system for iron supplementation in pregnancy
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1993;58((5):):622-6.
The present investigation was undertaken to assess the efficacy of oral iron supplementation during pregnancy by using a gastric delivery system (GDS). Three hundred seventy-six pregnant women between 16 and 35 y of age and 14 and 22 wk gestation were selected if mild anemia was present (hemoglobin concentration 80-110 g/L). The participants were randomly assigned to one of three study groups given no iron, two FeSO4 tablets (100 mg Fe) daily, or one GDS capsule (50 mg Fe) daily. Blood was obtained initially and after 6 and 12 wk for measurement of red blood cell and iron indexes, including serum transferrin receptor. There was a significant and comparable improvement in hematologic and iron-status measurements in the two groups of women given iron whereas iron deficiency evolved in women given no iron supplement. We conclude that by eliminating gastrointestinal side effects and reducing the administration frequency of an iron supplement to once daily, a GDS offers significant advantages for iron supplementation of pregnant women.