Recent Advancements in the Management of Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A Systematic Review
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a rare multisystem autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels and is more commonly seen in the geriatric population. ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is typically characterized as necrotizing vasculitis and includes granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The mortality rate remains high, with especially cardiovascular disease, infections, and malignancies being the leading causes of death. Existing treatment options depend heavily on the use of glucocorticoids (GCs), often in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC); however, as the multitude of adverse effects associated with these agents has increased, numerous studies are being conducted to reduce not only these harmful effects but also improve remission rates. Rituximab, avacopan, corticosteroids, including intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, and immunological targeting are among the emerging treatments. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the pathogenesis and traditional treatment modalities and give insights into the recent advances in managing this disorder in an attempt to spare the adverse effects of conventional therapies while achieving better remission rates with combination therapies as well. The authors explored multiple databases, employing appropriate keywords, satisfying the quality appraisal, after which a total of 14 reports were included in this review. Upon overall analysis, it can be concluded that rituximab and CYC, when used in combination, provided a safer alternative to GCs while exhibiting equal, if not superior, effectiveness and results, thus, paving the way for additional in-depth research in a larger population of interest.
A Systematic Review on the Management of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury in Transfusion-Dependent Sickle Cell Disease
The onset of respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI) following a blood transfusion is known as transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), although its pathophysiology remains unknown. Even though sickle cell disease (SCD) has been studied for more than a century, few therapeutic and management strategies adequately address the emergence of TRALI. TRALI, an immune-mediated transfusion response that can result in life-threatening consequences, is diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms. Early detection and treatment increase the chances of survival and, in most cases, result in a complete recovery. Our objective is to provide a firm grasp of the present status of SCD-related TRALI care and therapy. After exploring multiple databases, this study offers evidence-based guidelines to aid clinicians and other healthcare professionals make decisions concerning transfusion assistance for SCD and the management of transfusion-related complications. Other risk factors for acute lung injury including sepsis aspiration should be ruled out throughout the diagnostic process. Several recent studies have shown that immunotherapy or immunological targets can effectively prevent these complications. Red cell transfusions, red cell antigen matching optimization, and iron chelation can also help reduce negative consequences. It is to be noted that poor clinical outcomes can be avoided by early detection and treatment of hemolytic transfusion reactions. Finally, preventing the onset of TRALI may be the most effective therapeutic strategy for SCD patients who rely on blood transfusions for survival.
Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction with modest-volume paracentesis is partly ameliorated by albumin infusion in ACLF
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2019
Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) is a serious complication of large-volume (>5 L) paracentesis in cirrhosis and is reduced with albumin infusion. There is a lack of data on PICD in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Because ACLF patients have greater hemodynamic derangements than patients with decompensated cirrhosis, we investigated whether PICD could develop with modest-volume paracentesis (MVP) and the role of albumin infusion. A total of 80 ACLF patients undergoing <5 L paracentesis were randomized to receive albumin (8-10 g/L of ascitic fluid; n = 40) or no albumin (n = 40) and were serially followed to detect PICD. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, including volume of ascitic tap (4.16 +/- 0.23 vs. 4.14 +/- 0.27 L; P = 0.72) and plasma renin activity (PRA) (20.5 +/- 7.03 vs. 23.2 +/- 8.24 ng/mL/hour; P = 0.12). PICD was more frequent in the no-albumin group than the albumin group (70% vs. 30%; P = 0.001), with higher incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (50% vs. 27.5%; P = 0.04), hyponatremia (67.5% vs. 22.5%; P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (62.5% vs. 30%; P = 0.001), and in-house mortality (62.5% vs. 27.5%; P = 0.003). PRA of 25.15 ng/mL at day 3 had sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 68% for development of PICD at day 6. Albumin infusion decreased the incidence of PICD at day six (odds ratio, 0.068; 95% confidence interval, 0.011-0.43; P = 0.005). Conclusion: PICD is common and develops even with MVP in ACLF patients. Albumin infusion decreases the incidence of PICD and mortality in ACLF patients.
A prospective randomized trial of the efficacy of marginal quilting sutures and fibrin sealant in reducing the incidence of seromas in the extended latissimus dorsi donor site
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2010;125((5):):1309-17.
BACKGROUND The extended latissimus dorsi is a workhorse flap and plays an important role in breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, seromas at the flap donor site are a frustrating problem complicating many procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of fibrin sealant (Quixil; Johnson & Johnson, Langhorne, Pa. ) and limited quilting sutures at reducing seroma formation. METHODS This was a prospective, double-blinded, clinical trial under a single surgeon. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in the study, and all were followed up for a period of 6 months. The patients were randomized to receive either quilting sutures only (group 1) or a combination of Quixil sealant and marginal quilting sutures (group 2). RESULTS The incidence of seroma was 23. 1 percent in group 1 and 7. 7 percent in group 2 (odds ratio, 0. 28; relative risk, 0. 33). The mean total volume aspirated was significantly higher in group 1 (196. 7 ml compared with 30 ml, p = 0. 01). The average number of aspirations was 2. 7 in group 1 compared with one in group 2. There was a significant reduction in inpatient stay for group 2 by 2 days (p = 0. 01). Operative time was shortened by an average of 25 minutes. CONCLUSIONS The combination of fibrin sealant and marginal quilting sutures significantly reduces total drainage, hospital stay, and seroma formation. In the authors' opinion, the benefits of seroma prevention outweigh the extra costs associated with this product. The potential, albeit small, risk of virus transmission and allergic reaction, however, needs to be taken into consideration, as with any blood transfusion product.