Clinical Features and Therapeutic Effects of Anti-leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 Encephalitis: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:791014
Background: Clinical presentations and treatment programs about anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis still remain incompletely understood. Objective: This study analyzed the clinical features and therapeutic effects of anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify published English and Chinese articles until April 2021. Data were extracted, analyzed, and recorded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 80 publications detailing 485 subjects matched our inclusion criteria. Short-term memory loss (75.22%), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) (52.53%), other seizures excluding FBDS (68.48%), psychiatric symptoms (57.67%), and sleep disturbances (34.30%) were the most frequently described symptoms in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Hyponatremia (54.90%) was the most common hematologic examination change. The risk of incidence rate of malignant tumors was higher than in healthy people. The positive rate of anti-LGI1 in serum (99.79%) was higher than CSF (77.38%). Steroids (93.02%), IVIG (87.50%), and combined use (96.67%) all had a high remission rate in the initial visit. A total of 35 of 215 cases relapsed, of which 6/35 (17.14%) did not use first-line treatment, and 21 (60.00%) did not maintain long-term treatment. Plasma exchange (PE) could be combined in severe patients, immunosuppressant could be used for refractory patients or for recurrence and using an anti-epileptic drug to control seizures may benefit cognition. Conclusions: Short-term memory loss, FBDS, psychiatric symptoms, and hyponatremia were key features in identifying anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Serum and CSF antibody tests should be considered in diagnosis criteria. Steroids with IVIG should be recommended, PE was combined for use in severe patients, immunosuppressant therapy might improve outcomes if recurrence or progression occurred, and control seizures might benefit cognition. The useful ways to reduce relapse rate were early identification, clear diagnosis, rapid treatment, and maintaining long-term treatment. The follow-up advice was suggested according to the research of paraneoplastic syndrome, and concern about tumors was vital as well.
[Evaluation of pharmaceutical prevention and treatment of intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a Meta-analysis]
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2020;32(3):357-361
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of preventing and treatment of pharmaceuticals on intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) by systematic review. METHODS The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning pharmaceutical prevention and treatment about ICU-AW in SinoMed, CNKI, Wanfang data, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMbase, and other sources were searched from their foundation to May 30th, 2019. The patients in the intervention group were treated with drugs to prevent or treat ICU-AW; and those in control group were treated with other rehabilitation methods. Data searching, extracting and quality evaluation were assessed by two reviewers independently. Stata 12.0 software was then used for Meta-analysis. Only descriptive analysis was conducted when only one study was enrolled. RESULTS A total of 11 RCTs were enrolled with 1 865 patients in the intervention group and 1 894 in the control group. The results of quality evaluation showed that 4 studies were A-level and 7 studies were B-level, indicating that the overall quality of the enrolled literature was high. Meta-analysis showed that intensive insulin therapy could prevent ICU-AW [relative risk (RR) = 0.761, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.662-0.876, P = 0.000], but reduced phenylalanine loss (nmolx100 mL(-1)xmin(-1): -3+/-3 vs. -11+/-3, P < 0.05) and glutamine intake (nmolx100 mL(-1)xmin(-1): -97+/-22 vs. -51+/-13, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prevention and treatment of ICU-AW between other drugs (including growth hormone, glutamine, dexmedetomidine, neostigmine, oxandrolone, and intravenous immunoglobulin) and control group. CONCLUSIONS Intensive insulin therapy can prevent ICU-AW, but the risk of hypoglycemia will increase. Other drugs including growth hormone, glutamine, dexmedetomidine, neostigmine, oxandrolone, and intravenous immunoglobulin have no obvious advantages in the prevention and treatment of ICU-AW, so no drug has been recommended to prevent and treat ICU-AW.
Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Abnormality in Children With Kawasaki Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2019;7:374
While coronary artery abnormality (CAA) has been established as the most serious complication of Kawasaki disease (KD), there have been no detailed systematic reviews of the risk factors associated with this condition. We searched six databases and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) for each factor were pooled using a random effects model. We identified four risk factors for CAA children with KD: gender (OR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-1.92), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 2.07-5.67), IVIG treatment beyond 10 days of onset of symptoms (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.23-5.97), and increased C-reactive protein levels (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02). More number of the five typical symptoms of KD was identified as a protective factor against CAA (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66). Pediatric patients with IVIG resistant were more likely to develop CAA within 1 month of the onset of KD than the general population, even in patients with other risk factors for CAA. Thus, there is a potential risk of CAA misdiagnosis if echocardiography is not carried out frequently. In summary, we report four risk factors for CAA and a protective factor against CAA in children with KD. We recommend that pediatricians consider these factors much more closely. With accurate prediction and early preventive treatment in high-risk patients, we can expect a reduction in CAA rates. Further research is now required to investigate the associations between CAA and other factors including the interval between KD onset and IVIG administration, platelet count, and the duration of fever. We also need to confirm whether the frequency of echocardiography within a month of KD onset should be increased in IVIG-resistant patients.
Administration of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Postoperative Blood Loss in Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery. 2015;54((6)):1106-10.
The present randomized controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing postoperative blood loss in calcaneal fractures. A total of 90 patients with a unilateral closed calcaneal fracture were randomized to the TXA (n = 45) and control (n = 45) groups. The corresponding groups received 15 mg/kg body weight of TXA or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) intravenously before the skin incision was made. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed for all patients and selective bone grafting was performed. The patients were examined 3 months after surgery. The intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, blood test results, and wound complications were compared between the 2 groups. The complications of TXA were also investigated. No statistically significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics between the TXA and control groups. Also, no significant difference was noted in the intraoperative blood loss between the 2 groups. However, in the TXA group, the postoperative blood loss during the first 24 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (110.0 +/- 160.0 mL versus 320.0 +/- 360.0 mL; p < .001). The incidence of wound complications was also reduced compared with that in the control group (7.3% versus 23.8%; p = .036). No significant difference was found in the incidence of thromboembolic events or adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups. We concluded that preoperative single-dose TXA can effectively reduce postoperative blood loss and wound complications in patients with calcaneal fractures and that no significant side effects developed compared with the control group. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of double filtration plasmapheresis, leflunomide, and methotrexate on inflammatory changes found through magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis
Journal of Rheumatology. 2012;39((6):):1171-8.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) in combination with leflunomide and methotrexate (MTX) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected inflammatory changes (synovitis and bone edema) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with high disease activity. METHODS Sixty RA patients with highly active disease of 6 months' to 3 years' duration were randomized to receive DFPP in combination with leflunomide and MTX (DFPP group), and leflunomide plus MTX (no-DFPP group). The primary endpoint was the improvement in MRI-detected synovitis from baseline over 6 months. Secondary endpoint variables included DAS28 remission and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria responses for 6 consecutive months. RESULTS The study achieved significant improvement in synovitis and bone edema, with significantly lower synovitis and bone edema scores in the DFPP group compared with the no-DFPP group (p < 0.001). Synovitis scores in 48.39% of patients (15/31) in the DFPP group were 0 at Month 6. Bone edema scores in 32.26% of patients (10/31) in the DFPP group were 0 at Month 6. We observed significantly greater ACR20, ACR50, ACR70, and ACR90 responses and DAS28 remission rates in the DFPP group than in the no-DFPP group (p < 0.001). Sustained DAS28 remission and ACR90 response for at least 6 months were achieved in 100% of patients receiving DFPP therapy. CONCLUSION The combination of DFPP and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) was superior to DMARD alone for reducing MRI-detected signs of synovitis and bone edema in patients with early highly active RA. DFPP therapy enabled rapid and more complete suppression of inflammation in patients with highly active RA. Nearly half the patients (48.39%) who had received DFPP therapy achieved both clinical remission and imaging remission, a state characterized as true remission.
A controlled study of double filtration plasmapheresis in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology : Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases. 2007;13((4):):193-8.
BACKGROUND Double-filtration plasmapheresis with a plasma fractionator pore size of 20 nm should selectively remove large molecular weight substances like rheumatoid factor and IgM. This was proposed to be more likely to be helpful for rheumatoid arthritis than standard plasma exchange. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) in the treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS Eighty-two patients were randomly assigned, 42 to the DFPP group and 40 to the no-DFPP group. All patients received sulfasalazine (0. 75 g 3 times daily) plus methotrexate (10 mg orally once weekly). All patients had been on stable doses for more than 3 months. DFPP was performed once a week for 2 to 3 sessions. A total of 121 plasmapheresis procedures were performed in 42 patients. Control patients did not receive sham DFPP. The efficacy measures recorded 1 day after the final treatment and every month in follow-up for 4 to 22 months included the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20%, 50%, and 70% improvement criteria (ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70), the Health Assessment Questionnaire estimate of disability and the disease activity index. RESULTS Patients in the DFPP group had ACR20, ACR 50, and ACR70 improvements immediately after the last treatment of 100%, 92. 9%, and 81. 0%, when compared with the patients in no-DFPP group 17. 5%, 0%, and 0% (P < 0. 001). Significant change from baseline was observed in Health Assessment Questionnaire scores in the DFPP group, but not in the no-DFPP group (P < 0. 001). The changes from baseline in the disease activity scores were significantly greater than in the no-DFPP group (P < 0. 001). Improvements were maintained during follow-up of 7 to 22 months. CONCLUSION This open trial showed that DFPP therapy significantly altered the signs and symptoms of active rheumatoid arthritis. There were increases in physical function and improvement in quality of life. This is proposed as an approach that merits further investigation.