The impact of pathogen-reduced platelets in acute leukaemia treatment on the total blood product requirement: a subgroup analysis of an EFFIPAP randomised trial
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of pathogen-reduced (PR) platelet transfusions on blood products requirement for clinical practice. BACKGROUND PR platelets are increasing in use as standard blood products. However, few randomised trials have evaluated their impact on bleeding control or prevention. Furthermore, PR platelets recirculate less than untreated platelets. METHODS A subgroup study of the randomised clinical trial EFFIPAP compared three arms of platelet preparations (PR: P-PRP/PAS, additive solution: P-PAS and plasma P-P arms respectively). The subgroup of acute leukaemia patients, in their chemotherapy induction phase, included 392 patients (133 P-PRP/PAS arm, 132 P-PAS arm and 130 P-P arm). Blood requirements were analysed across over periods of 7 days. RESULTS The number of platelet transfusions per week was significantly higher in the P-PRP/PAS group 2.3 [1.6-3.3] compared to the control groups 1.9 [1.3-2.8] and 2.0 [1.3-3.0] for P-P and P-PAS groups respectively (p < 0.0001). However, the total number of platelets transfused per week was not different. The number of red blood cell concentrates (RBC) transfusion per week did not differ either. CONCLUSION In a homogeneous group of patients, platelet pathogen reduction resulted in an increased number of platelet units transfused per week while having no impact on the total number of platelets transfused or the number of RBC transfusion; resulting to an average requirement of 2 RBC and 2-3 platelets transfusions per week of marrow aplasia.
Patient Blood Management: Recommendations From the 2018 Frankfurt Consensus Conference
Importance: Blood transfusion is one of the most frequently used therapies worldwide and is associated with benefits, risks, and costs. Objective: To develop a set of evidence-based recommendations for patient blood management (PBM) and for research. Evidence Review: The scientific committee developed 17 Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome (PICO) questions for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in adult patients in 3 areas: preoperative anemia (3 questions), RBC transfusion thresholds (11 questions), and implementation of PBM programs (3 questions). These questions guided the literature search in 4 biomedical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Transfusion Evidence Library), searched from inception to January 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and the Evidence-to-Decision framework by 3 panels including clinical and scientific experts, nurses, patient representatives, and methodologists, to develop clinical recommendations during a consensus conference in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in April 2018. Findings: From 17607 literature citations associated with the 17 PICO questions, 145 studies, including 63 randomized clinical trials with 23143 patients and 82 observational studies with more than 4 million patients, were analyzed. For preoperative anemia, 4 clinical and 3 research recommendations were developed, including the strong recommendation to detect and manage anemia sufficiently early before major elective surgery. For RBC transfusion thresholds, 4 clinical and 6 research recommendations were developed, including 2 strong clinical recommendations for critically ill but clinically stable intensive care patients with or without septic shock (recommended threshold for RBC transfusion, hemoglobin concentration <7 g/dL) as well as for patients undergoing cardiac surgery (recommended threshold for RBC transfusion, hemoglobin concentration <7.5 g/dL). For implementation of PBM programs, 2 clinical and 3 research recommendations were developed, including recommendations to implement comprehensive PBM programs and to use electronic decision support systems (both conditional recommendations) to improve appropriate RBC utilization. Conclusions and Relevance: The 2018 PBM International Consensus Conference defined the current status of the PBM evidence base for practice and research purposes and established 10 clinical recommendations and 12 research recommendations for preoperative anemia, RBC transfusion thresholds for adults, and implementation of PBM programs. The relative paucity of strong evidence to answer many of the PICO questions supports the need for additional research and an international consensus for accepted definitions and hemoglobin thresholds, as well as clinically meaningful end points for multicenter trials.
The systematic use of evidence-based methodologies and technologies enhances shared decision-making in the 2018 International Consensus Conference on Patient Blood Management
Vox sanguinis. 2019
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Patient Blood Management (PBM) aims to optimize the care of patients who might need a blood transfusion. The International Consensus Conference on PBM (ICC-PBM) aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations on three topics: preoperative anaemia, red blood cell transfusion thresholds and implementation of PBM programmes. This paper reports how evidence-based methodologies and technologies were used to enhance shared decision-making in formulating recommendations during the ICC-PBM. MATERIALS & METHODS Systematic reviews on 17 PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes) questions were conducted by a Scientific Committee (22 international topic experts and one methodologist) according to GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated using Consensus Development Conference methodology. RESULTS We screened 17 607 references and included 145 studies. The overall certainty in the evidence of effect estimates was generally low or very low. During the ICC, plenary sessions (100-200 stakeholders from a range of clinical disciplines and community representatives) were followed by closed sessions where multidisciplinary decision-making panels (>50 experts and patient organizations) formulated recommendations. Two chairs (content-expert and methodologist) moderated each session and two rapporteurs documented the discussions. The Evidence-to-Decision template (GRADEpro software) was used as the central basis in the process of formulating recommendations. CONCLUSION This ICC-PBM resulted in 10 clinical and 12 research recommendations supported by an international stakeholder group of experts in blood transfusion. Systematic, rigorous and transparent evidence-based methodology in a formal consensus format should be the new standard to evaluate (cost-) effectiveness of medical treatments, such as blood transfusion.
Comparison of the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets vs untreated platelets in patients with thrombocytopenia and malignant hematologic diseases: a randomized clinical trial
Jama Oncology. 2018;4((4):):468-475
Importance: Pathogen reduction of platelet concentrates may reduce transfusion-transmitted infections but is associated with qualitative impairment, which could have clinical significance with regard to platelet hemostatic capacity. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of platelets in additive solution treated with amotosalen-UV-A vs untreated platelets in plasma or in additive solution in patients with thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancies. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelets Treated With Pathogen Reduction Process (EFFIPAP) study was a randomized, noninferiority, 3-arm clinical trial performed from May 16, 2013, through January 21, 2016, at 13 French tertiary university hospitals. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily until the end of aplasia, transfer to another department, need for a specific platelet product, or 30 days after enrollment. Consecutive adult patients with bone marrow aplasia, expected hospital stay of more than 10 days, and expected need of platelet transfusions were included. Interventions: At least 1 transfusion of platelets in additive solution with amotosalen-UV-A treatment, in plasma, or in additive solution. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of patients with grade 2 or higher bleeding as defined by World Health Organization criteria. Results: Among 790 evaluable patients (mean [SD] age, 55 [13.4] years; 458 men [58.0%]), the primary end point was observed in 126 receiving pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution (47.9%; 95% CI, 41.9%-54.0%), 114 receiving platelets in plasma (43.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-49.5%), and 120 receiving platelets in additive solution (45.3%; 95% CI, 39.3%-51.3%). With a per-protocol population with a prespecified margin of 12.5%, noninferiority was not achieved when pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution were compared with platelets in plasma (4.4%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 12.9%) but was achieved when the pathogen-reduced platelets were compared with platelets in additive solution (2.6%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 11.1%). The proportion of patients with grade 3 or 4 bleeding was not different among treatment arms. Conclusions and Relevance: Although the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets in thrombopenic patients with hematologic malignancies was noninferior to platelets in additive solution, such noninferiority was not achieved when comparing pathogen-reduced platelets with platelets in plasma. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01789762.
Prevention of syncopal-type reactions after whole blood donation: a cluster-randomized trial assessing hydration and muscle tension exercise
BACKGROUND The prevention of presyncopal and syncopal reactions to whole blood donation is important for both the donor's safety and their retention as blood donors. The best strategy to achieve this remains debated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cluster-randomized trial comparing three hydration modes (500 mL of an isotonic drink, 500 mL of water, just before phlebotomy, or advice to drink [control arm]) coupled or not with light muscle tensing exercises, was carried out in mobile and fixed units of two regional blood centers in southeast France between January and July 2014. The main outcome was the cumulative incidence of presyncope (feeling faint) and syncope (fainting) at the donation site or in the 48 hours after leaving the site. Secondary outcomes were the cumulative incidence of these adverse events during donation, immediately after blood donation, or within 48 hours. RESULTS Overall, presyncope or syncope occurred in 5.5% of the 4576 donors. Compared to controls, drinking 500 mL (isotonic solution or water) significantly reduced the rate of events (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.99; p = 0.041) independently of muscle tensing exercise. Muscle tensing exercises significantly reduced syncopal-type reactions during the donation (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; p = 0.041), and an isotonic drink significantly reduced delayed off-site syncopal-type reactions (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.98; p = 0.040) and tiredness after donation (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.94; p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS Drinking 500mL of water or isotonic drink close to phlebotomy is useful in preventing presyncopal or syncopal reactions in blood donors. Isotonic drinks have the advantage of preventing delayed reactions and tiredness after whole blood donation.
Age of transfused blood in critically ill adults
New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372((15):):1410-8.
BACKGROUND Fresh red cells may improve outcomes in critically ill patients by enhancing oxygen delivery while minimizing the risks of toxic effects from cellular changes and the accumulation of bioactive materials in blood components during prolonged storage. METHODS In this multicenter, randomized, blinded trial, we assigned critically ill adults to receive either red cells that had been stored for less than 8 days or standard-issue red cells (the oldest compatible units available in the blood bank). The primary outcome measure was 90-day mortality. RESULTS Between March 2009 and May 2014, at 64 centers in Canada and Europe, 1211 patients were assigned to receive fresh red cells (fresh-blood group) and 1219 patients were assigned to receive standard-issue red cells (standard-blood group). Red cells were stored a mean (+/-SD) of 6.1+/-4.9 days in the fresh-blood group as compared with 22.0+/-8.4 days in the standard-blood group (P<0.001). At 90 days, 448 patients (37.0%) in the fresh-blood group and 430 patients (35.3%) in the standard-blood group had died (absolute risk difference, 1.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.1 to 5.5). In the survival analysis, the hazard ratio for death in the fresh-blood group, as compared with the standard-blood group, was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2; P=0.38). There were no significant between-group differences in any of the secondary outcomes (major illnesses; duration of respiratory, hemodynamic, or renal support; length of stay in the hospital; and transfusion reactions) or in the subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS Transfusion of fresh red cells, as compared with standard-issue red cells, did not decrease the 90-day mortality among critically ill adults. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN44878718.).
The ABLE study: a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of fresh red cell units to improve the outcome of transfused critically ill adults . French
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique. 2015;22((3)):107-11.
Red blood cell units are stored up to 42 days post-collection. The standard policy of blood banks is to deliver the oldest units in order to limit blood wastage. Many caregivers believe that giving fresh rather than old units can improve the outcome of their transfused patients. The ABLE study aims to check if the transfusion of red blood cell units stored seven days or less (fresh arm) improve the outcome of transfused critically ill adults compared to patients who received units delivered according to the standard delivery policy (control arm). From March 2009 to May 2014, 1211 patients were allocated to the fresh arm, 1219 to the control arm (length of storage: 6.1+/-4.9 and 22.0+/-8.4 days respectively, P<0.001). The primary outcome measure was 90-day all-cause mortality post-randomisation: there were 448 deaths (37.0%) in the fresh arm and 430 (35.3%) in the control arm (absolute risk difference: 1.7%; 95% confidence interval: -2.1% to 5.5%). In a survival analysis, the risk of death was higher in the fresh arm (hazard ratio: 1.1; 95%CI: 0.9 to 1.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.38). The same trend against the fresh arm was observed with all but one secondary outcome measures. The conclusion is that the transfusion of red blood cell units stored seven days or less does not improve the outcome of critically ill adults compared to the transfusion of units stored about three weeks (22.0+/-8.4 days). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Length of red blood cell storage and clinical outcomes in transfused critical ill adults – the Age of Blood Evaluation (ABLE) randomised controlled trial
Transfusion Medicine. 2015;25((Suppl. 1)):6.. Abstract No. S10
Immune modulation and microchimerism after unmodified versus leukoreduced allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in cancer patients: results of a randomized study
BACKGROUND Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) has been associated with immunomodulatory effects. Persistence of donor cells in the recipient may be contributive. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized single-center trial was conducted to compare microchimerism and immune responses in 35 patients undergoing cancer surgery and transfused perioperatively with either unmodified RBCs (UN-RBCs, n = 18) or leukoreduced RBCs (LR-RBCs, n = 17). Biologic parameters included microchimerism assessment peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) phenotyping, cytokine production by stimulated PBMNCs, FoxP3 gene expression, and T-cell repertoire (TCR) analysis. RESULTS Microchimerism was documented in 8 of 18 patients after UN-RBC transfusion while absent after LR-RBC transfusion (0/17; p = 0. 001). After UN-RBC transfusion, microchimerism was associated with increased interleukin (IL)-10 production (p = 0. 02), reduced TCR alteration (p = 0. 04), and reduced CD56+ cell counts (p = 0. 02) when compared to recipients without evidence for microchimerism. FoxP3 gene expression did not differ significantly between both treatment groups nor with the presence or absence of microchimerism in the UN-RBC group. Finally, after an initial early decrease after surgery and transfusion, IL-12 production increased and more significantly so after UN-RBC transfusion versus LR-RBC transfusion (p = 0. 05). CONCLUSION UN-RBC-induced microchimerism is associated with specific immunomodulatory effects in cancer patients who received transfusions during surgery.
Immune competence and microchimerism after unmodified versus leuko-reduced allogeneic red blood cells transfusion in cancer patient: results of a randomized study
Blood. 2002;100((11, Pt 2):): Abstract No. 1093.