Reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mainou M, Alahdab F, Tobian AA, Asi N, Mohammed K, Murad MH, Grossman BJ
Transfusion. 2016;56((6 Pt 2):):1569-80
BACKGROUND Leukoreduced (LR) or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative cellular blood components are commonly used to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted CMV infection in high-risk patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the evidence for the use of LR cellular blood components with or without concurrent CMV testing of donor units in patients undergoing chemotherapy or solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in pregnant women, in very-low-birthweight infants, and in patients with primary immunodeficiency. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from 1980 through February 2015. Studies were included if they had a comparison group. Two independent reviewers selected and appraised studies. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. RESULTS Of 457 studies screened, 11 were eligible. One study was excluded from the meta-analysis because the comparison performed differed significantly from the others. Meta-analysis of five studies that compared leukoreduction to transfusing CMV-untested blood components showed no significant difference in clinical CMV infection (relative risk [RR], 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-1.57) or laboratory CMV infection (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.08-1.37). Meta-analysis of three studies that compared leukoreduction to transfusing CMV-seronegative cellular components showed no significant difference in laboratory CMV infection (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 0.96-4.98). Meta-analysis of two studies that compared adding CMV testing to leukoreduction (vs. leukoreduction alone) showed no significant difference in clinical or laboratory CMV infection. The certainty in estimates was low for all comparisons. CONCLUSION At present, the scientific evidence does not favor a single strategy for reducing the risk of transfusion-related CMV infection in high-risk patients.
Platelet transfusion: a systematic review of the clinical evidence
Kumar A, Mhaskar R, Grossman BJ, Kaufman RM, Tobian AA, Kleinman S, Gernsheimer T, Tinmouth AT, Djulbegovic B, AABB Platelet Transfusion Guidelines Panel
BACKGROUND Platelet (PLT) transfusion is indicated either prophylactically or therapeutically to reduce the risk of bleeding or to control active bleeding. Significant uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate use of PLT transfusion and the optimal threshold for transfusion in various settings. We formulated 12 key questions to assess the role of PLT transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a systematic review (SR) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane registry of controlled trials was performed. Methodologic quality of included studies was assessed and a meta-analysis was performed if more than two studies with similar designs were identified for a specific question. RESULTS Seventeen RCTs and 55 observational studies were included in the final SR. Results from RCTs showed a beneficial effect of prophylactic compared with therapeutic transfusion for the prevention of significant bleeding in patients with hematologic disorders undergoing chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. We found no difference in significant bleeding events related to the PLT count threshold for transfusion or the dose of PLTs transfused. Overall methodologic quality of RCTs was moderate. Results from observational studies showed no evidence that PLT transfusion prevented significant bleeding in patients undergoing central venous catheter insertions, lumbar puncture, or other surgical procedures. The methodologic quality of observational studies was very low. CONCLUSION We provide a comprehensive assessment of evidence on the use of PLT transfusions in a variety of clinical settings. Our report summarizes current knowledge and identifies gaps to be addressed in future research.Copyright © 2014 AABB.