Factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity (FEIBA) for the reduction of transfusion in cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial
Pilot and feasibility studies. 2021;7(1):137
BACKGROUND Uncontrolled bleeding after cardiac surgery can be life-threatening. Factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA) is a prothrombin complex concentrate empirically used as rescue therapy for correction of refractory bleeding diathesis post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). FEIBA used as rescue therapy for bleeding diathesis after CPB has been associated with a low incidence of complications and a reduction in transfusion requirement and re-exploration. The feasibility and efficacy of early administration of FEIBA after the termination of CPB have not been studied in a prospective randomized trial. METHODS We designed a small randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial to determine the feasibility of a larger trial testing the hypothesis that FEIBA decreases transfusion requirements after CPB. The study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of a larger pivotal trial to determine the effectiveness of FEIBA in reducing the total volume of blood products transfused perioperatively, and its safety profile. Study participants were adult patients undergoing elective major aortic cardiovascular surgery at a tertiary referral hospital, who were equally randomized to receive a single dose of either FEIBA or matched placebo intraoperatively at the end of CPB. RESULTS Twenty patients were screened and 12 were randomized and included in the analysis. Protocol adherence was high, and all patients received the study drug per intention-to-treat except one patient. There were no protocol deviations or events of unblinding, and adverse events were not different between groups. Patients in the FEIBA group were older and more likely to be female and had higher BMI, lower hematocrit, and longer hypothermic circulatory arrest. There were no differences in post-randomization blood product transfusions (difference FEIBA vs. placebo -899 mL; 95% CI -5206 to 3409) or in the administration of open-label FEIBA. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial confirmed the adequacy of the trial design that involved the early, blinded administration of FEIBA, by demonstrating excellent protocol adherence. We conclude that a larger trial establishing the effectiveness of early prothrombin complex concentrate administration to reduce the use of blood products in the setting of high-risk cardiac surgery is feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02577614 . Registered 16 October 2015.
Randomized Pilot Trial of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2020;11(4):452-458
BACKGROUND Due to the substantial improvement in survival among pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery, reducing early and long-term morbidity is becoming the major focus of care. Blood transfusion is associated with worse postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is a blood conservation strategy that aims to reduce allogenic blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. However, there are scant data regarding its efficacy for pediatric cardiac surgery patients. METHODS We designed a single-center, controlled, randomized, pilot trial in patients between 6 and 36 months old undergoing pediatric heart surgery. Patients were equally assigned to undergo ANH prior to initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass or to be managed per usual care. The primary end point was the amount of blood product transfused perioperatively. Secondary end points were markers of morbidity: postoperative bleeding, hematocrit, inotropic agents use, intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The analysis was by intention-to-treat. Estimates of differences between groups are presented with 95% CIs. RESULTS Twelve pediatric heart surgery patients were randomized to each group, ANH and usual care. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Acute normovolemic hemodilution implementation did not result in a reduction in the administration of blood product transfused (difference between ANH and usual care among patients transfused = -1.4 mL [-29.4 to 26.6], P = .92). Secondary end points were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS In this small trial of pediatric cardiac surgery patients, ANH as a strategy to reduce blood component therapy was safe; however, the study failed to show a reduction in perioperative transfusion or other postoperative outcomes.