Injured patients who received prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) and were at risk for haemorrhage enrolled in the STAAMP randomised controlled trial (n= 766).
Abbreviated dose: 1g of TXA (n= 130). Standard dose: 2g of TXA (n= 119). Repeat dose: 3g of TXA (n= 130).
Placebo (saline), (n= 383).
Blood samples were collected to measure markers of endothelial function and tissue damage including syndecan-1, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) at hospital admission and 12, 24, and 72 hours after admission. Lower levels of syndecan-1, TM, and PECAM measured within the first 72 hours of hospital admission were associated with survival at 30 days. At hospital admission (mean ng/mL [IQR]), syndecan-1 was lower in the TXA group than the placebo group (28.30 [20.05, 42.75] vs. 33.50 [23.00, 54.00]) even after controlling for patient, injury, and prehospital factors. For every 1g increase in TXA administered over the first 8 hours of prehospital transport and hospital admission, there was a 4 ng/mL decrease in syndecan-1 at 12 hours controlling for patient, injury, and treatment factors.