Liberal Versus Restrictive Red Blood Cell Transfusion Thresholds in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Open Label, Phase III, Noninferiority Trial
Tay J, Allan DS, Chatelain E, Coyle D, Elemary M, Fulford A, Petrcich W, Ramsay T, Walker I, Xenocostas A, et al
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1901836
PURPOSE Evidence regarding red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices and their impact on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes are poorly understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a noninferiority randomized controlled trial in four different centers that evaluated patients with hematologic malignancies requiring HCT who were randomly assigned to either a restrictive (hemoglobin [Hb] threshold < 70 g/L) or liberal (Hb threshold < 90 g/L) RBC transfusion strategy between day 0 and day 100. The noninferiority margin corresponds to a 12% absolute difference between groups in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) score relative to baseline. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by FACT-BMT score at day 100. Additional end points were collected: HRQOL by FACT-BMT score at baseline and at days 7, 14, 28, 60, and 100; transplantation-related mortality; length of hospital stay; intensive care unit admissions; acute graft-versus-host disease; Bearman toxicity score; sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; serious infections; WHO Bleeding Scale; transfusion requirements; and reactions to therapy. RESULTS A total of 300 patients were randomly assigned to either restrictive-strategy or liberal-strategy treatment groups between 2011 and 2016 at four Canadian adult HCT centers. After HCT, mean pre-transfusion Hb levels were 70.9 g/L in the restrictive-strategy group and 84.6 g/L in the liberal-strategy group (P < .0001). The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (mean, 2.73 units [standard deviation, 4.81 units] v 5.02 units [standard deviation, 6.13 units]; P = .0004). After adjusting for transfusion type and baseline FACT-BMT score, the restrictive-strategy group had a higher FACT-BMT score at day 100 (difference of 1.6 points; 95% CI, -2.5 to 5.6 points), which was noninferior compared with that of the liberal-strategy group. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the transfusion strategies. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing HCT, the use of a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy threshold of 70 g/L was as effective as a threshold of 90 g/L and resulted in similar HRQOL and HCT outcomes with fewer transfusions.
Patients with haematologic malignancies requiring haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) across four Canadian HCT centres, (n=300).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion (RBC) strategy (haemoglobin [Hb] threshold < 70 g/L), (n= 150).
Liberal RBC transfusion strategy (Hb threshold < 90 g/L), (n= 150).
After HCT, mean pre-transfusion Hb levels were 70.9 g/L in the restrictive-strategy group and 84.6 g/L in the liberal-strategy group. The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (mean, 2.73 units vs. 5.02 units). After adjusting for transfusion type and baseline Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) score, the restrictive-strategy group had a higher FACT-BMT score at day 100 (difference of 1.6 points), which was non-inferior compared with that of the liberal-strategy group. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the transfusion strategies.
The Transfusion Alternatives Preoperatively in Sickle Cell Disease (TAPS) study: a randomised, controlled, multicentre clinical trial
Howard J, Malfroy M, Llewelyn C, Choo L, Hodge R, Johnson T, Purohit S, Rees DC, Tillyer L, Walker I, et al
BACKGROUND No consensus exists on whether preoperative blood transfusions are beneficial in patients with sickle-cell disease. We assessed whether perioperative complication rates would be altered by preoperative transfusion. METHODS We did a multicentre, randomised trial. Eligible patients were aged at least 1 year, had haemoglobin SS or S(0)thalassaemia sickle-cell-disease subtypes, and were scheduled for low-risk or medium-risk operations. Patients were randomly assigned no transfusion or transfusion no more than 10 days before surgery. The primary outcome was the proportion of clinically important complications between randomisation and 30 days after surgery. Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS 67 (96%) of 70 enrolled patients-33 no preoperative transfusion and 34 preoperative transfusion-were assessed. 65 (97%) of 67 patients had the haemoglobin SS subtype and 54 (81%) were scheduled to undergo medium-risk surgery. 13 (39%) of 33 patients in the no-preoperative-transfusion group had clinically important complications, compared with five (15%) in the preoperative-transfusion group (p=0.023). Of these, 10 (30%) and one (3%), respectively, had serious adverse events. The unadjusted odds ratio of clinically important complications was 3.8 (95% CI 1.2-12.2, p=0.027). 10 (91%) of 11 serious adverse events were acute chest syndrome (nine in the no-preoperative-transfusion group and one in the preoperative-transfusion group). Duration of hospital stay and readmission rates did not differ between study groups. INTERPRETATION Preoperative transfusion was associated with decreased perioperative complications in patients with sickle-cell disease in this trial. This approach could, therefore, be beneficial for patients with the haemoglobin SS subtype who are scheduled to undergo low-risk and medium-risk surgeries. FUNDING NHS Blood and Transplant. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Pre-operative transfusion reduces serious adverse events in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD): results from the Transfusion Alternatives Preoperatively in Sickle Cell Disease (TAPS) randomised controlled multicentre clinical trial
Howard J, Malfroy M, Charlotte L, Choo L, Rees D, Walker I, Johnson T, Tillyer L, Fijnvandraat K, Kirby-Allen M, et al
ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2011;118((21):): Abstract No. 9.
The use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with non-myeloid hematological malignancies: a systematic review
Shehata N, Walker I, Meyer R, Haynes AE, Imrie K, The Cancer Care Ontario Hematology Disease Site Group
Annals of Hematology. 2008;87((12):):961-73.
The effectiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the treatment of anemia in patients with non-myeloid hematological malignancies needs to be assessed as the response to their administration is not uniform and their cost is high. We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the literature to identify reports of the effect of ESAs on survival, quality of life (QOL), transfusion requirements, and anemia. The entries to MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, and abstracts published in the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology were searched. Seventeen reports and five abstracts of randomized trials fulfilled prospective criteria for inclusion. Five trials reported on survival; three failed to detect differences between groups and two demonstrated inferior survival in patients allocated to an ESA. Seven trials and three abstracts reported on QOL with four articles and three abstracts describing improvements in patients allocated to erythropoietin. However, important methodologic limitations were identified in these reports. Seven randomized controlled trials reported a reduction in the proportion of patients transfused. The absolute risk reduction in transfusions ranged from 15% to 24%. This is the only SR that assesses the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents specifically in patients with hematological malignancies. We conclude that available data evaluating ESAs in patients with hematologic malignancies demonstrate that these agents reduce transfusion requirements. Limitations of these data preclude conclusions that these agents improve QOL. More data are required to confirm the inferior survival associated with ESAs.
A randomized controlled trial comparing plasma removal with white cell reduction to prevent reactions to platelets
Heddle NM, Klama L, Meyer R, Walker I, Boshkov L, Roberts R, Chambers S, Podlosky L, O'Hoski P, Levine M
BACKGROUND Recent data suggest that most reactions to platelets are caused by white cell (WBC)-derived cytokines that accumulate in the plasma portion of the component during storage. On the basis of this theory, the effectiveness of two interventions to prevent reactions, poststorage WBC reduction and plasma depletion, were compared. STUDY DESIGN A multiple crossover design was used, in which platelet components for transfusion to a patient randomly were WBC reduced after storage, or the plasma supernatant was removed. Adults >17 years of age, with a hematologic disease requiring platelet transfusion support, were eligible for the study. Patients were assessed for signs and symptoms characteristic of a reaction during, immediately after, and 1 hour after transfusion. Reactions were graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Interleukin 6 levels were also measured in the transfused platelet components. RESULTS There were 380 analyzable platelet transfusions to 30 patients. The frequency of reactions was 25.8 percent (48/186) in the transfusions of poststorage WBC-reduced platelets and 17.0 percent (33/194) in the transfusions of plasma-depleted platelets (p<0.008). The severity of the reaction was graded by the patient. Severe reactions occurred more frequently in connection with poststorage WBC-reduced platelets than with plasma-depleted platelets: 33.4 percent (16/48) versus 18.2 percent (6/33), respectively (p = 0.048). Regression analysis identified interleukin 6 as the most significant of the evaluated factors in its correlation with the risk of reaction. CONCLUSION Plasma removal is more effective than poststorage WBC reduction in preventing reactions, especially severe reactions to platelets.
A randomized trial comparing plasma removal to two types of pre-storage leukoreduction to prevent reactions to platelets
Heddle NM, Meyer R, Sher G, Walker I, Blajchman MA, Costantini L, Roberts R,, et al.,
Transfusion. 1999;39((S10):):96S.. Abstract No. S440-030P.
Investigation of two interventions to prevent acute reactions to platelets
Heddle N, Klama L, Kelton JG, Walker I, Meyer R, Levine M
Vox Sanguinis. 1996;70((Suppl 2):):27. Abstract No. SY2B II-05.
A comparison of two interventions to prevent platelet reactions
Heddle NM, Klama L, Meyer R, Roberts R, Walker I, O'Hoski P, Levine M,, et al.,
Transfusion. 1996;36((9S):):47S.. Abstract No. S185.
The use of anti-D to improve post-transfusion platelet response: a randomized trial
Heddle NM, Klama L, Kelton JG, Meyer R, Walker I, Dickson L, Chambers S, Levine MN
British Journal of Haematology. 1995;89((1):):163-8.
Patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute leukaemia often become refractory to platelet transfusions. Increased clearance of transfused platelets due to alloimmune destruction has been identified as one of the primary mechanisms contributing to this refractory state. We performed a double-blind randomized trial to determine whether the administration of anti-D to Rh-positive individuals could prevent the refractory state and improve post-transfusion platelet response. Rh-positive patients with acute leukaemia undergoing induction chemotherapy and requiring platelet transfusions were allocated to weekly intravenous anti-D (20 micrograms/kg) or placebo. Platelets and red cell concentrates were administered according to standardized transfusion guidelines. Outcome measures included platelet transfusion utilization, red cell utilization, platelet recovery 18-24 h post-infusion, and the percentage of patients refractory to platelet transfusion. There were 43 patients studied: 21 received anti-D and 22 saline placebo. The mean number of platelet concentrates required per day of observation was 0.59 (SD 0.22) in the anti-D group and 0.61 (SD 0.22) in the placebo group, P = 0.86. No difference was detected between groups in terms of platelet recovery post-infusion, refractoriness to platelet transfusion or frequency of infection (P = 0.97). Red cell concentrate utilization was significantly increased in the anti-D group compared to the placebo group, 0.58 units per day versus 0.37 units per day respectively, P = 0.005. We conclude that the use of anti-D did not improve post-transfusion platelet response in Rh positive patients with acute leukaemia, but did result in an increased need for red cell transfusion.
The role of the plasma from platelet concentrates in transfusion reactions
Heddle NM, Klama L, Singer J, Richards C, Fedak P, Walker I, KeltonJ-G
New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;331((10):):625-628.