Clinical characteristics and treatment of terlipressin-induced ischemic skin necrosis: A synthesis of 35 literature reported cases
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE The clinical features of terlipressin-induced ischemic skin necrosis are unknown. The purpose of this study is to explore the clinical features of terlipressin-induced skin necrosis. METHODS We searched Chinese and English databases to collect case reports of terlipressin-induced skin necrosis for retrospective analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 42 patients (31 males and 11 females) from 35 studies were included, with a median age of 54 years (range 0.17-84). The onset of skin ischemia ranged from a few hours to 21 days. The most common clinical manifestations were bulla (15 cases, 35.7%), cyanosis (12 cases, 28.6%), necrosis (11 cases, 26.2%), and purpura (10 cases, 23.8%). The following were often affected: the legs (26 cases), 61.9%), abdomen (13, 31.0%), scrotum (10 cases, 23.8%), feet (10 cases, 23.8%), upper extremities (8 cases, 19.0%), and hands (7 cases, 16.7%). Skin biopsy showed fibrin thrombus (7 cases, 38.9%), nonspecific inflammation (6 cases, 33.3%), and necrosis (10 cases, 55.6%). After discontinuation of terlipressin, skin symptoms improved in most patients. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Ischemic skin necrosis is a rare and serious adverse effect of terlipressin. Patients receiving terlipressin therapy should be monitored closely for terlipressin-related ischemic complications. Terlipressin should be discontinued immediately if ischemic complications occur.
Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture is still controversial. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of PRP injections treating acute Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies that were published prior to April 29, 2021. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of PRP injections in treating patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were included. Statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan software. RESULTS Five randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. The results of the meta-analysis showed that PRP has positive effects on ankle dorsiflexion angle, dorsal extension strength of the ankle, and calf circumference compared with that in controls. However, the current evidence failed to show that PRP effectively improves ankle plantar flexion angle, plantar flexion strength of the ankle, and pain. CONCLUSIONS PRP injections for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture significantly improved ankle dorsiflexion angle, dorsal extension strength of the ankle, and calf circumference compared with that in controls. Additional studies with larger sample sizes, more rigorous designs and standardized protocols are needed to draw more reliable and accurate conclusions.
To Investigate the Effect of Glucocorticoids on Blood Loss during and after First Total Hip Arthroplasty and Its Safety Meta-Analysis
Journal of healthcare engineering. 2021;2021:9681129
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical glucocorticoids for total hip arthroplasty by meta-analysis. METHODS A computerized search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed English databases, as well as Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, vipu Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese Knowledge Net Database, was performed to include all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding topical glucocorticoid therapy for postoperative bleeding after THA according to the inclusion criteria. The quality evaluation criteria of RCTs, as stated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.5, were adopted for evaluation, and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS A total of 10 articles were included, including 1,112 patients: 566 in the topical glucocorticoid group and 546 in the control group. The transfusion rate was 8.43% for topical glucocorticoids and 30.05% for the control group (P < 0.001), and topical glucocorticoids reduced 317.89 ml total blood loss and 76.82 ml invisible blood loss, with statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). The amount of intraoperative blood loss was reduced by topical glucocorticoids, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.83), and the postoperative HB value was increased by topical glucocorticoids, although the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The incidence of DVT and PE after topical glucocorticoid application (3.03%) was greater than that of the control group (2.40%), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.54), and the incidence of infection after topical glucocorticoid application (3.03%) was greater than that of the control group (2.40%). The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.39). CONCLUSIONS Topical glucocorticoids can reduce the transfusion rate and blood loss in THA patients without increasing their risk of thrombosis.
Platelet-rich plasma injection vs corticosteroid injection for conservative treatment of rotator cuff lesions: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND To explore the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection regarding functional recovery, pain relief, and range of motion (ROM) of shoulder compared with the corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff lesions treated non-operatively. METHODS An electronic literature search was performed by 2 authors in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trial (RCTs) that were published up to July 20, 2020. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated using the approach recommended by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) or mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to calculate the pooled effect sizes. RESULTS Six RCTs were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis revealed that corticosteroid injection yielded statistically significant superior functional recovery (SMD = -0.80; 95% CI, -1.42 to -0.18; P = .01) and pain relief (MD = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.30-2.89; P = .02) compared with PRP injection for rotator cuff lesions during the short-term follow-up period. However, at the medium-term and long-term follow-up, no statistically significant difference was identified between the 2 groups. Regarding the ROM of shoulder, no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups during the whole follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The current clinical evidence revealed short-term efficacy of corticosteroid injection and no significant medium- to long-term difference between corticosteroid and PRP injection in the treatment of rotator cuff lesions. Additional studies with longer follow-ups, larger sample sizes, and more rigorous designs are needed to draw more reliable and accurate conclusions.
Risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury
Respiratory care. 2021
Background: Until now, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has been considered to be the leading cause of blood transfusion-related diseases and death. And there is no clinically effective treatment plan for TRALI. The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the literature on risk factors for TRALI in critical patients.Methods: Electronic searches (up to March 2020) were performed in the Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, Embase, and PubMed databases. We included studies reporting on the risk factors of TRALI for critical patients and extracted the risk factors. Finally, thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria.Results: We summarized and analyzed the potential risk factors of TRALI for critical patients in 13 existing studies. The host-related factors were age (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.08-1.24]), female sex (OR = 1.26 [1.16-1.38]), tobacco use status (OR = 3.82 [1.91-7.65]), chronic alcohol abuse (OR = 3.82 [2.97-26.83]), positive fluid balance (OR = 1.24 [1.08-1.42]), shock before transfusion (OR = 4.41 [2.38-8.20]), and ASA score of the recipients (OR = 2.72 [1.43-5.16]). The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions (OR = 1.40 [1.14-1.72]) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units (OR = 1.21 [1.01-1.46]). The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.13 [2.20-7.76]).Conclusions: The risk factors for TRALI in this study included Number of transfusions and FFP units were positively correlated with TRALI. Age, female sex, tobacco use, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, ASA score and mechanical ventilation may be potential risk factors for TRALI. Our study suggests that host-related risk factors may play a more important role in the occurrence and development of TRALI than blood transfusion-related risk factors.
Critical care patients (13 studies).
Systematic review on the risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).
The host-related factors were age, female sex, tobacco use status, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, and ASA score of the recipients. The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions and fresh frozen plasma units. The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation.
Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Improves the Intraoperative Visualization of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for High-Grade Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blinded Prospective Trial
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:771159
Objective: Intraoperative bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for high-grade rhinosinusitis can be serious and can further obscure the surgical field. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on the surgical visualization of ESS for high-grade rhinosinusitis. Methods: In total, 60 patients with high-grade chronic rhinosinusitis (Lund-Mackay score 12 or greater) treated by ESS were randomized into two groups: the control group (Group C) or the TXA group (Group T). Each group included 30 patients. Patients in Group T received intravenous TXA, and those in Group C received normal saline. The Boezaart grading scale (BS) score was assessed as the primary outcome. Total blood loss (TBL), whole blood coagulation, and fibrinolysis were assessed by Sonoclot analysis, and complications were recorded and compared between the groups. Result: A significant difference was found in the BS score between Group T and Group C [2.02 (1.88-2.05) vs. 2.27 (2.13-2.41), P = 0.011]. Increases in platelet function (PF) and fibrin degradation time (FDT) were assessed during the operation and showed significant differences between Group T and Group C (P = 0.040 for PF; P = 0.010 for FDT). No difference in complications was found between the two groups. Conclusion: A 15 mg/kg bolus of intravenous TXA before surgery can improve the surgical visualization of ESS for high-grade chronic rhinosinusitis without causing significant adverse effects. Intravenous TXA may be beneficial in ESS for high-grade chronic rhinosinusitis. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=121653&htm=4.
Hypertension management in elderly with severe intracerebral hemorrhage
Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of individualized blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment on the outcomes of elderly patients with severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS We performed an exploratory analysis of Controlling Hypertension After Severe Cerebrovascular Event (CHASE) trial, which was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (defined as GCS ≤ 12 or NIHSS ≥ 11) were randomized into individualized versus standard BP-lowering treatment in CHASE trial. In this exploratory analysis, patients with severe ICH were included. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with 90-day functional independence defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤2. RESULTS We included 242 patients with severe ICH in the present analysis, consisting of 142 patients aged <65 years and 100 patients aged ≥65 years. There were significant differences between patients aged ≥65 years and <65 years in the proportion of functional independence (47.9% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001) and good outcome (73.9% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.001) at day 90. In patients aged ≥65 years, the adjusted individualized BP-lowering treatment had an unequivocal effect on the functional independence at day 90 (21.6% vs. 8.2%, odds ratio [OR]: 4.309, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.040-17.859, P = 0.044) and improved the neurological deficits at discharge (∆ NIHSS ≥ 4: 64.7% vs. 34.7%, OR: 4.300, 95% CI: 1.599-11.563, P = 0.004). INTERPRETATION Compared with the younger counterparts, the elderly patients (≥65 years) with acute severe ICH might benefit more from individualized BP-lowering treatment.
Are The Applications of Tranexamic Acid in Reverse Hybrid Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) The Same as Those in Fully Cemented TKA?: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Traditional fully cemented prosthesis for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has many disadvantages. Current studies have shown that the effects of mixed fixation TKA are the same as or even better than those of fully cemented TKA. We aimed to compare the total blood loss (TBL) in the two fixation types of TKA and the hemostatic effects of different doses of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reverse hybrid TKA. METHODS From September 2018 to November 2020, 233 patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing unilateral TKA were randomly divided into four groups: groups 1 and 2: fully cemented TKA + intra-articular injection (IAI) of either 1 g TXA (n = 54) or 2 g TXA (n = 60); groups 3 and 4: reverse hybrid TKA + IAI of either 1 g TXA (n = 56) or 2 g TXA (n = 63). All patients were administered intravenous drip of TXA (20 mg/kg) as the basic drug. Perioperative and follow-up data of all patients were compared. RESULTS The TBL in groups 1, 2, and 3 was higher than that in group 4 (P < 0.0001). The TBL in group 1 was significantly less than that in group 3 (P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in blood transfusion demand among the four groups (P > 0.05), the number of anemic patients who did not meet the standard of blood transfusion in group 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in pain, function or thrombotic complications among all patients. CONCLUSION The TBL in reverse hybrid TKA is larger than in fully cemented TKA. For reverse hybrid TKA, the hemostatic effect of TXA with 2 g of IAI was significantly better than with 1 g. Although this method does not reduce the need for blood transfusion, it can significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative anemia.
Platelet-rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(11):e19388
BACKGROUND This meta-analysis focuses on the controversial efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) in the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis. We have attempted to provide an evidence-based medicine protocol for the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis. In addition, we included the latest relevant literature in this meta-analysis, and a staging study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of PRP and HA for knee osteoarthritis over different time periods. METHODS An online computer search with "platelet-rich plasma" and "knee osteoarthritis" as search terms was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. We conducted a quality assessment of the retrieved literature and extracted the following indicators: visual analog scale (VAS) score, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and adverse events. RevMan5.3 software was used to determine the effect sizes, and indicators were compared across studies at three different time points from the administration of treatment. RESULTS A total of 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1350 patients were included. Long-term VAS, IKDC, WOMAC-Pain, WOMAC-Stiffness, WOMAC-Physical Function, and WOMAC-Total scores at each time point were higher in the PRP group than in the HA group. There were no significant differences in the remaining indicators between the two groups. CONCLUSION Compared with HA, PRP offers obvious advantages in the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Treatment with PRP can reduce long-term pain and improve knee joint function with no additional risks. Therefore, PRP can be widely used for the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
Efficacy of Nucleotide/Nucleoside Analogues and Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Therapy in Blocking Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B in an Eastern Chinese Group
Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. 2020;2020:4305950
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and potential side-effects of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues and hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection of newborns in blocking mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in the middle and late pregnancy period. 238 cases of enrolled pregnant women were divided into the Telbivudine group, the Tenofovir group, the Lamivudine group, and the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) group. Enrolled patients received corresponding therapies. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results showed that the levels of HBV DNA of the enrolled pregnant women in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, and Lamivudine groups decreased rapidly after 12 weeks of drug intervention compared with those in the control. HBsAg positive rate in newborns and in children 24 weeks after birth was 0/60, 0/60, 0/60, 3/30, and 11/28 in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, Lamivudine, HBIG, and control groups, respectively. No significant side-effects were identified after following up to 12 months after birth. Our results show that routine HBV vaccine plus HBIG injections is insufficient in blocking mother-to-child HBV transmission. Administration of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues or HBIG at pregnancy is suggested to maximize the blocking of vertical HBV transmission.