Hypertension management in elderly with severe intracerebral hemorrhage
Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of individualized blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment on the outcomes of elderly patients with severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS We performed an exploratory analysis of Controlling Hypertension After Severe Cerebrovascular Event (CHASE) trial, which was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (defined as GCS ≤ 12 or NIHSS ≥ 11) were randomized into individualized versus standard BP-lowering treatment in CHASE trial. In this exploratory analysis, patients with severe ICH were included. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with 90-day functional independence defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤2. RESULTS We included 242 patients with severe ICH in the present analysis, consisting of 142 patients aged <65 years and 100 patients aged ≥65 years. There were significant differences between patients aged ≥65 years and <65 years in the proportion of functional independence (47.9% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001) and good outcome (73.9% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.001) at day 90. In patients aged ≥65 years, the adjusted individualized BP-lowering treatment had an unequivocal effect on the functional independence at day 90 (21.6% vs. 8.2%, odds ratio [OR]: 4.309, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.040-17.859, P = 0.044) and improved the neurological deficits at discharge (∆ NIHSS ≥ 4: 64.7% vs. 34.7%, OR: 4.300, 95% CI: 1.599-11.563, P = 0.004). INTERPRETATION Compared with the younger counterparts, the elderly patients (≥65 years) with acute severe ICH might benefit more from individualized BP-lowering treatment.
Risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury
Respiratory care. 2021
Background: Until now, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has been considered to be the leading cause of blood transfusion-related diseases and death. And there is no clinically effective treatment plan for TRALI. The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the literature on risk factors for TRALI in critical patients.Methods: Electronic searches (up to March 2020) were performed in the Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, Embase, and PubMed databases. We included studies reporting on the risk factors of TRALI for critical patients and extracted the risk factors. Finally, thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria.Results: We summarized and analyzed the potential risk factors of TRALI for critical patients in 13 existing studies. The host-related factors were age (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.08-1.24]), female sex (OR = 1.26 [1.16-1.38]), tobacco use status (OR = 3.82 [1.91-7.65]), chronic alcohol abuse (OR = 3.82 [2.97-26.83]), positive fluid balance (OR = 1.24 [1.08-1.42]), shock before transfusion (OR = 4.41 [2.38-8.20]), and ASA score of the recipients (OR = 2.72 [1.43-5.16]). The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions (OR = 1.40 [1.14-1.72]) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units (OR = 1.21 [1.01-1.46]). The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.13 [2.20-7.76]).Conclusions: The risk factors for TRALI in this study included Number of transfusions and FFP units were positively correlated with TRALI. Age, female sex, tobacco use, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, ASA score and mechanical ventilation may be potential risk factors for TRALI. Our study suggests that host-related risk factors may play a more important role in the occurrence and development of TRALI than blood transfusion-related risk factors.
Critical care patients (13 studies).
Systematic review on the risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).
The host-related factors were age, female sex, tobacco use status, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, and ASA score of the recipients. The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions and fresh frozen plasma units. The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation.
Platelet-rich plasma injection vs corticosteroid injection for conservative treatment of rotator cuff lesions: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND To explore the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection regarding functional recovery, pain relief, and range of motion (ROM) of shoulder compared with the corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff lesions treated non-operatively. METHODS An electronic literature search was performed by 2 authors in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trial (RCTs) that were published up to July 20, 2020. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated using the approach recommended by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) or mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to calculate the pooled effect sizes. RESULTS Six RCTs were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis revealed that corticosteroid injection yielded statistically significant superior functional recovery (SMD = -0.80; 95% CI, -1.42 to -0.18; P = .01) and pain relief (MD = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.30-2.89; P = .02) compared with PRP injection for rotator cuff lesions during the short-term follow-up period. However, at the medium-term and long-term follow-up, no statistically significant difference was identified between the 2 groups. Regarding the ROM of shoulder, no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups during the whole follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The current clinical evidence revealed short-term efficacy of corticosteroid injection and no significant medium- to long-term difference between corticosteroid and PRP injection in the treatment of rotator cuff lesions. Additional studies with longer follow-ups, larger sample sizes, and more rigorous designs are needed to draw more reliable and accurate conclusions.
Are The Applications of Tranexamic Acid in Reverse Hybrid Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) The Same as Those in Fully Cemented TKA?: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Traditional fully cemented prosthesis for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has many disadvantages. Current studies have shown that the effects of mixed fixation TKA are the same as or even better than those of fully cemented TKA. We aimed to compare the total blood loss (TBL) in the two fixation types of TKA and the hemostatic effects of different doses of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reverse hybrid TKA. METHODS From September 2018 to November 2020, 233 patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing unilateral TKA were randomly divided into four groups: groups 1 and 2: fully cemented TKA + intra-articular injection (IAI) of either 1 g TXA (n = 54) or 2 g TXA (n = 60); groups 3 and 4: reverse hybrid TKA + IAI of either 1 g TXA (n = 56) or 2 g TXA (n = 63). All patients were administered intravenous drip of TXA (20 mg/kg) as the basic drug. Perioperative and follow-up data of all patients were compared. RESULTS The TBL in groups 1, 2, and 3 was higher than that in group 4 (P < 0.0001). The TBL in group 1 was significantly less than that in group 3 (P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in blood transfusion demand among the four groups (P > 0.05), the number of anemic patients who did not meet the standard of blood transfusion in group 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in pain, function or thrombotic complications among all patients. CONCLUSION The TBL in reverse hybrid TKA is larger than in fully cemented TKA. For reverse hybrid TKA, the hemostatic effect of TXA with 2 g of IAI was significantly better than with 1 g. Although this method does not reduce the need for blood transfusion, it can significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative anemia.
Association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative venous thromboembolism: Review meta-analysis
Annals of vascular surgery. 2020
OBJECTIVES Several studies have shown that preoperative blood transfusion is associated with postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE. METHODS Published articles were identified through a comprehensive review of PUBMED and EMBASE. Data from studies reporting relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios comparing the risk of postoperative VTE among participants who had preoperative blood transfusion versus those without preoperative blood transfusion were analyzed. A random-effect model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confident intervals (CI). RESULTS Eight studies, which included 3,504,778 participants, aligned with our inclusion criteria, and were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed an association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE, with an odds ratio of 2.95 (95%CI, 1.65, 5.30; I(2) = 89.1%). In subgroup analyses, the positive association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE were still exist in studies with confounders adjustment. Sensitivity analysis by one-study removed analysis confirmed the robustness of our results. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated that preoperative blood transfusion was associated with higher odds of postoperative VTE. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE.
Patients undergoing surgery (8 studies, n= 3,504,778).
Preoperative blood transfusion.
Without preoperative blood transfusion.
Pooled analysis showed an association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). In subgroup analyses, the positive association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE still existed in studies with confounders adjustment.
Platelet-rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(11):e19388
BACKGROUND This meta-analysis focuses on the controversial efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) in the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis. We have attempted to provide an evidence-based medicine protocol for the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis. In addition, we included the latest relevant literature in this meta-analysis, and a staging study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of PRP and HA for knee osteoarthritis over different time periods. METHODS An online computer search with "platelet-rich plasma" and "knee osteoarthritis" as search terms was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. We conducted a quality assessment of the retrieved literature and extracted the following indicators: visual analog scale (VAS) score, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and adverse events. RevMan5.3 software was used to determine the effect sizes, and indicators were compared across studies at three different time points from the administration of treatment. RESULTS A total of 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1350 patients were included. Long-term VAS, IKDC, WOMAC-Pain, WOMAC-Stiffness, WOMAC-Physical Function, and WOMAC-Total scores at each time point were higher in the PRP group than in the HA group. There were no significant differences in the remaining indicators between the two groups. CONCLUSION Compared with HA, PRP offers obvious advantages in the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Treatment with PRP can reduce long-term pain and improve knee joint function with no additional risks. Therefore, PRP can be widely used for the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
Only Tumors Angiographically Identified as Hypervascular Exhibit Lower Intraoperative Blood Loss Upon Selective Preoperative Embolization of Spinal Metastases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in oncology. 2020;10:597476
BACKGROUND The role of preoperative embolization (PE) in reducing intraoperative blood loss (IBL) during surgical treatment of spinal metastases remains controversial. METHODS A systematic search was conducted for retrospective studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the IBL between an embolization group (EG) and non-embolization group (NEG) for spinal metastases. IBL data of both groups were synthesized and analyzed for all tumor types, hypervascular tumor types, and non-hypervascular tumor types. RESULTS In total, 839 patients in 11 studies (one RCT and 10 retrospective studies) were included in the analysis. For all tumor types, the average IBL did not differ significantly between the EG and NEG in the RCT (P = 0.270), and there was no significant difference between the two groups in the retrospective studies (P = 0.05, standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.03 to 0.00). For hypervascular tumors determined as such by consensus (n = 542), there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.52, SMD = -0.25, 95% CI: -1.01 to 0.52). For those determined as such using angiographic evidence, the IBL was significantly lower in the EG than in the NEG group, in the RCT (P = 0.041) and in the retrospective studies (P = 0.004, SMD = -0.93, 95% CI: -1.55 to -.30). For IBL of non-hypervascular tumor types, both the retrospective study (P = 0.215) and RCT (P = 0.947) demonstrated no statistically significant differences in IBL between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Only tumors angiographically identified as hypervascular exhibited lower IBL upon PE in this study. Further exploration of non-invasive methods to identify the vascularity of tumors is warranted.
Efficacy of Nucleotide/Nucleoside Analogues and Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Therapy in Blocking Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B in an Eastern Chinese Group
Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. 2020;2020:4305950
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and potential side-effects of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues and hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection of newborns in blocking mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in the middle and late pregnancy period. 238 cases of enrolled pregnant women were divided into the Telbivudine group, the Tenofovir group, the Lamivudine group, and the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) group. Enrolled patients received corresponding therapies. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results showed that the levels of HBV DNA of the enrolled pregnant women in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, and Lamivudine groups decreased rapidly after 12 weeks of drug intervention compared with those in the control. HBsAg positive rate in newborns and in children 24 weeks after birth was 0/60, 0/60, 0/60, 3/30, and 11/28 in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, Lamivudine, HBIG, and control groups, respectively. No significant side-effects were identified after following up to 12 months after birth. Our results show that routine HBV vaccine plus HBIG injections is insufficient in blocking mother-to-child HBV transmission. Administration of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues or HBIG at pregnancy is suggested to maximize the blocking of vertical HBV transmission.
Roxadustat Treatment for Anemia in Patients Undergoing Long-Term Dialysis
The New England journal of medicine. 2019
BACKGROUND Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron metabolism. Additional data are needed regarding the effectiveness and safety of roxadustat as compared with standard therapy (epoetin alfa) for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis. METHODS In a trial conducted in China, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients who had been undergoing dialysis and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy with epoetin alfa for at least 6 weeks to receive roxadustat or epoetin alfa three times per week for 26 weeks. Parenteral iron was withheld except as rescue therapy. The primary end point was the mean change in hemoglobin level from baseline to the average level during weeks 23 through 27. Noninferiority of roxadustat would be established if the lower boundary of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between the values in the roxadustat group and epoetin alfa group was greater than or equal to -1.0 g per deciliter. Patients in each group had doses adjusted to reach a hemoglobin level of 10.0 to 12.0 g per deciliter. Safety was assessed by analysis of adverse events and clinical laboratory values. RESULTS A total of 305 patients underwent randomization (204 in the roxadustat group and 101 in the epoetin alfa group), and 256 patients (162 and 94, respectively) completed the 26-week treatment period. The mean baseline hemoglobin level was 10.4 g per deciliter. Roxadustat led to a numerically greater mean (+/-SD) change in hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 23 through 27 (0.7+/-1.1 g per deciliter) than epoetin alfa (0.5+/-1.0 g per deciliter) and was statistically noninferior (difference, 0.2+/-1.2 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to 0.5). As compared with epoetin alfa, roxadustat increased the transferrin level (difference, 0.43 g per liter; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.53), maintained the serum iron level (difference, 25 mug per deciliter; 95% CI, 17 to 33), and attenuated decreases in the transferrin saturation (difference, 4.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.5 to 6.9). At week 27, the decrease in total cholesterol was greater with roxadustat than with epoetin alfa (difference, -22 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -29 to -16), as was the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (difference, -18 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -23 to -13). Roxadustat was associated with a mean reduction in hepcidin of 30.2 ng per milliliter (95% CI, -64.8 to -13.6), as compared with 2.3 ng per milliliter (95% CI, -51.6 to 6.2) in the epoetin alfa group. Hyperkalemia and upper respiratory infection occurred at a higher frequency in the roxadustat group, and hypertension occurred at a higher frequency in the epoetin alfa group. CONCLUSIONS Oral roxadustat was noninferior to parenteral epoetin alfa as therapy for anemia in Chinese patients undergoing dialysis. (Funded by FibroGen and FibroGen [China] Medical Technology Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02652806.).
Clinical efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic full-thickness rotator cuff repair: A meta-analysis
PloS one. 2019;14(7):e0220392
BACKGROUND Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears, although commonly performed, carries the risk of retears. Therefore, bioremediation techniques such as platelet-rich plasma injections have been used as adjuvant therapies. The clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injury is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma and provide evidence-based medical recommendations for selecting the proper clinical treatment plan for full-thickness rotator cuff injuries. METHODS A search for the terms "platelet-rich plasma" and "rotator cuff" was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases using a computer. After conducting quality evaluations and data extraction, RevMan 5.3 software was used to combine the effect sizes, and the GRADEpro Guideline Development Tool was used to rate the level of evidence from aspects of functional score, pain score and retear rate. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials involving 566 patients were included. The long-term retear rate(RR = 0.96, 95% CI [0.52, 1.78], P = .89), Constant score(RR = 0.96, 95% CI [0.52, 1.78], P = .89), and Visual Analog Scale score for pain (SMD = -0.28, 95% CI [-0.60, 0.04], P = .08), as well as both the long-term and short-term Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores(SMD = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.44, 0.18], P = .41;SMD = -0.02, 95% CI [-0.40, 0.36], P = .93), were not significantly different between the platelet-rich plasma and control groups. However, the short-term retear rate(RR = 0.29, 95% CI [0.13, 0.65], P = .003) and Visual Analog Scale score (SMD = -0.41, 95% CI [-0.62, -0.19], P = .0002) were significantly lower, while the short-term Constant score(SMD = 0.37, 95% CI [0.19, 0.55], P < .0001) and short-term and long-term University of California at Los Angeles activity scores (SMD = 0.38, 95% CI [0.16, 0.60], P = .0008;SMD = 0.85, 95% CI [0.48, 1.22], P < .00001) were significantly higher, in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group. CONCLUSION Platelet-rich plasma injection can effectively improve the short-term outcomes following arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears, thus reducing the rate of retears, alleviating pain, and improving patients' shoulder function. Specifically, the clinical outcomes are better with the use of platelet-rich plasma in single-row fixation than in other fixation techniques. Therefore, platelet-rich plasma injection can be recommended as an adjuvant therapy in single-row repair for improved short-term results.