Finding the optimal regimen for short-term daily recombinant human erythropoietin treatment for blood-saving purpose in patients undergoing unilateral primary total hip arthroplasty: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2022;23(1):243
PURPOSE To find the best short-term daily recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO)-based treatment protocols for blood-saving purpose in THA. METHOD The patients were randomized to 1 of 3 interventions: Patients in group A received 10,000 IU (150 IU/kg) of subcutaneous rhEPO (1 ml) daily from 5 days preoperatively to 3 days postoperatively (9 doses in total); Patients in group B received 1 ml of subcutaneous normal saline daily from 5 days preoperatively to 3 days preoperatively and then 10,000 IU (150 IU/kg) of subcutaneous rhEPO daily until 3 days postoperatively (6 doses in total). Patients in group C received 1 ml of subcutaneous normal saline daily from 5 days preoperatively to one day preoperatively and then 10,000 IU (150 IU/kg) of subcutaneous rhEPO daily from the day of surgery to 3 days postoperatively (4 doses in total). RESULTS One hundred eighty patients were included. On postoperative day one, patients in the group A showed significantly higher Hb level (108.4 ± 11.4 g/L) than group C (103.9 ± 8.8 g/L). Group B (107.8 ± 8.4 g/L) also showed significantly higher Hb level than group C (103.9 ± 8.8 g/L) (p < 0.05). On postoperative day 3, no significant difference was found between group B and group C in Hb level (98.7 ± 10.5 and 94.9 ± 8.7 g/L, respectively) (p = 0.094), but the Hb level in group A (103.6 ± 11.0 g/L) was still markedly higher than in group B and the Hb level in group A was also markedly higher than in group C. In terms of blood loss, no markedly difference was found in intraoperative blood loss among group A, B and C (78.3 ± 22.4, 84.6 ± 29.1, and 80.3 ± 23.9 ml, respectively) (p = 0.381), but on postoperative day one, the mean blood loss in group C (522.4 ± 189.4 ml) was significantly more than group B (371.2 ± 124.6 ml), and group B was also significantly more than group A (284.8 ± 112.9 ml) with 95% confidence interval, and group B had significantly less blood loss than group C (p < 0.001). With respect to the total blood loss, the total blood loss in group C (881.6 ± 314.9 ml) was significantly more than group B (642.6 ± 232.9 ml), and group B was also significantly more than group A (514.5 ± 204.6 ml) with 95% confidence interval (Table 2). Only 2 patients in each group received allogeneic blood transfusion and each patient received 2 units of red blood cells, so, the transfusion requirements among the three groups were comparable. CONCLUSIONS Daily small-dose of subcutaneous rhEPO administered from 5 days before THA could significantly decrease perioperative blood loss and improve postoperative Hb levels, without increasing risks of complications, when compared with the application of rhEPO from 3 days before THA or from the day of surgery. However, surgeons should choose the regimen individually according to different patients' personal circumstances.
Flapless osteotome-mediated sinus floor elevation using platelet-rich fibrin versus lateral approach using deproteinised bovine bone mineral for residual bone height of 2-6 mm: a randomised trial
Clinical oral implants research. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate patient-reported outcomes and radiographic results of simultaneous implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla using flapless endoscope-assisted osteotome sinus floor elevation with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), also defined as PESS, and to compare the results with those of lateral sinus floor elevation (LSFE). METHODS Patients with a residual bone height (RBH) of 2-6 mm were included in a randomised controlled trial. PESS was performed with PRF as the sole grafting material. LSFE was performed using deproteinised bovine bone matrix. Patient-reported outcomes were recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS-pain) and visual rating scale (VRS-swelling and VRS-willingness). Peri-implant bone height (PBH), bone mineral density (BMD), and sinus grafting remodelling index were measured using CBCT immediately postoperatively and 3(rd) , 6(th) and 18(th) months post-surgery. RESULTS The study population consisted of 20 patients in each group. The RBH of two groups averaged 3.35±0.79 mm and 2.92±0.63 mm with no significant difference (p > 0.05). VAS-pain was 18.0 (IR 15.0-22.5) and 35.0 (IR 32.5-37.0) in the PESS and LSFE groups, respectively (p < 0.01). VAS-pain decreased with time in both groups. VRS-swelling was lower in the PESS group than LSFE group. VRS-willingness was higher in the PESS group than LSFE group (p < 0.01). At 18 months post-surgery, the marginal bone loss was 0.60±0.25 mm and 0.69±0.35 mm in the two groups with no significant difference (p = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS Within the limitations of this study, PESS was associated with lower postoperative morbidity and was more tolerable than LSFE. PESS could be a reliable procedure for sinus floor elevation in patients with insufficient RBH.
Effects of Local Administration of Tranexamic Acid on Reducing Postoperative Blood Loss in Surgeries for Closed, Sanders III-IV Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study
Indian journal of orthopaedics. 2021;55(Suppl 2):418-425
PURPOSE To investigate whether local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in postoperative blood loss reduction in surgeries for Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures. METHODS Calcaneal fracture patients who were hospitalized in our hospital from August 2014 to April 2018 and underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) via lateral approach with an L-shaped incision were included in the present study. 53 Patients were randomly divided into three groups, groups A (17), B (17) and C (19). Twenty milliliters of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml TXA solution were perfused into the incision of patients in group A and group B, respectively. Twenty milliliters of saline were perfused into the incision of patients in group C as control. The volume of postoperative drainage, postoperative blood test, coagulation test, and wound complications were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local administration of TXA on blood loss reduction. RESULTS The amount of drainage at 24 and 48 h after the procedure was 110 ± 170, 30 ± 10 ml and 130 ± 160, 20 ± 17 ml for patients in group A and group B, respectively. The corresponding numbers for patients in group C were 360 ± 320, 20 ± 10 ml. The difference between group A and group C was statistically significant, so was the difference between group B and group C. No statistically significant difference was found between group A and group B. Postoperative blood test results revealed that the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in group A and group B when each compared to that of group C. In contrast, no difference was found between group A and group B. No significant difference was found between each experimental group and the control group in terms of platelet counts, prothrombin time (P.T.), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), and wound complications. CONCLUSION Local administration of TXA is effective in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in surgeries for Sanders III-IV types of calcaneal fractures without notably associated side effects.
ABO blood group influence COVID-19 infection: a meta-analysis
Journal of infection in developing countries. 2021;15(12):1801-1807
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have linked the relationship between ABO blood group and COVID-19 infection. However, existing evidence is preliminary and controversial. This meta-analysis sought to identify studies that describe COVID-19 and ABO blood group. METHODOLOGY A literature search was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science, MedRxiv, BioRxiv and Google Scholar databases. Members of cases and controls were extracted from collected studies. Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated and interpreted from extracted data. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also applied to confirm our discovery. RESULTS Total 13,600 patients and 3,445,047 controls were included in the study. Compared to other ABO blood group, blood group O was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.66-0.84), while blood group A and AB was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.10-1.41; OR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.23, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, the relationship between blood group A, O and COVID-19 infection remained stable among Chinese, European and Eastern Mediterranean populations. In American population, blood groups B was linked with increased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.09-1.35). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggested that individuals with blood types A and AB are more susceptible to COVID-19, while people with blood type O are less susceptible to infection. More research is needed to clarify the precise role of the ABO blood group in COVID-19 infection to address the global question.
The Efficacy of High-Dose Dexamethasone vs. Other Treatments for Newly Diagnosed Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2021;8:656792
Objective: To compare the therapeutic efficacies of high dose dexamethasone, prednisone and rituximab in combination with dexamethasone for newly diagnosed ITP (Immune Thrombocytopenia, ITP) patients. Methods and results: Relevant publications for this study were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI) databases following the PRISMA guidelines. A total of, 15 publications were retrieved that contained sufficient data from 1,362 patients for high quality analysis of this study endpoints. Data analysis was carried out using Stata 11.0 software. The primary outcomes were OR (Overall Response, OR) at 1 month after intervention and SR at 6 and 12 months. The secondary outcomes were AEs and relapse. There were no differences in the OR, while the SR was higher at 6 months (p = 0.001) as well as 12 months (p < 0.001) in the rituximab + dexamethasone group. In addition, the incidences of AEs (p = 0.008) were also higher in the rituximab + dexamethasone group. Dexamethasone was superior to prednisone based on OR (p = 0.006). We found no differences in SR at 6 months between dexamethasone and prednisone but SR at 12 months was higher in the dexamethasone group (p = 0.014). The relapse rate was higher in the high dose dexamethasone group compared to the rituximab + dexamethasone group (p = 0.042). Conclusion: This demonstrated that new treatment options such as Rituximab + dexamethasone, could be a good alternative to traditional therapy in improving long-term response and reducing the rate of relapse. However, further studies are required on the increased risk of AEs associated with Rituximab + dexamethasone.
Application of hepatitis B immunoglobulin in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of chronic hepatitis B in HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive mother
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2021;:1-6
The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) combined with HBV vaccine (HBVac) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B in HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive mother. We enrolled 331 mother-infant pairs with HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive maternal state from the Women's Hospital School of Medicine of Zhejiang University. Newborns were randomly distributed into two groups according to the dosages of HBIG injection: 100 IU and 200 IU. Newborns from both groups were injected with HBVac in the same doses. We compared the immune outcomes between the two groups and explore the influencing factors of immune outcomes through regression analysis. There was no statistically significant relationship between HBsAg serological transmission of newborns and dosages of HBIG in HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive mother (p > .05). The Logistic regression showed that high DNA load is a risk factor for passive-active immunoprophylaxis failure for both 100 IU and 200 IU group, but higher-dosage HBIG is not necessary for higher-viral-load pregnant women with HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive. In conclusion, combined application of HBVac and a single dose of 100 IU HBIG can achieve the ideal MTCT interruption results for HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive pregnant women.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Passive-active immunoprophylaxis is proved to be effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B. Hepatitis B vaccine combined with 100 IU or 200 IU immunoglobulin is mostly recommended in China.What do the results of this study add? At present, there is still a lack scientific basis for improving existing strategies and measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in China.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? 100 IU and 200 IU immunoglobulin show equivalent blocking effect, and combined use of hepatitis B vaccine and 100 IU immunoglobulin is more cost-effective.
Effects of Tranexamic Acid on Bleeding in Pediatric Surgeries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:759937
Background: Major pediatric surgeries can cause severe intraoperative blood loss. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in pediatric surgeries. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from the conception to March 31, 2021 to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of TXA in pediatric surgeries. Two reviewers choosed studies, evaluated quality, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias independently. Mean difference (MD) was calculated as the summary statistic for continuous data. We used a random-effects model to measure mean effects. Data were generated from the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) using RevMan 5.3 software. Primary outcomes included intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion as well as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion. Results: Fifteen studies enrolling 1,332 patients were included in this study. The pooled outcomes demonstrated that TXA was associated with a decreased intraoperative (MD = -1.57 mL/kg, 95% CI, -2.54 to -0.60, P = 0.002) and postoperative (MD = -7.85 mL/kg, 95% CI, -10.52 to -5.19, P < 0.001) blood loss, a decreased intraoperative (MD = -7.08 mL/kg, 95% CI, -8.01 to -6.16, P < 0.001) and postoperative (MD = -5.30 mL/kg, 95% CI, -6.89 to -3.70, P < 0.001) RBC transfusion, as well as a decreased intraoperative (MD = -2.74 mL/kg, 95% CI, -4.54 to -0.94, P = 0.003) and postoperative (MD = -6.09 mL/kg, 95% CI, -8.26 to -3.91, P < 0.001) FFP transfusion in pediatric surgeries. However, no significant difference was noted between two groups in duration of surgery (MD = -12.51 min, 95% CI -36.65 to 11.63, P = 0.31). Outcomes of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and the duration of surgery in included studies were not pooled due to the high heterogeneity. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that TXA was beneficial for bleeding in pediatric surgeries.
Clinical Application of Microsurgery Using the Cerebellar Medulla Fissure Approach in Severe Ventricular Hemorrhage with Casting of the Fourth Ventricle and Its Influence on Neurological Recovery
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:3699233
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical application of microsurgery using the cerebellar medulla fissure approach in severe ventricular hemorrhage with casting of the fourth ventricle and its effect on neurological recovery. METHODS A total of 80 patients with severe intraventricular hemorrhage accompanied by casting and dilation of the fourth ventricle who were admitted to the neurosurgery department between July 2019 and December 2020 were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 40 patients in each group. The drainage tube extubation time and length of hospital stay of the two groups were compared. The 3-day hematoma clearance of the two groups was observed. Postoperative consciousness was evaluated by GCS, and the patients' recovery was evaluated by GOS at three months. The activities of daily living (ADL) scores of the two groups were compared to evaluate patients' postoperative self-care ability. The incidence of postoperative complications in the two groups was collected. Independent risk factors for poor prognosis were analyzed by logistics regression. RESULTS The postoperative hospitalization time and the drainage tube extubation time in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The ratio of hematoma clearance ≥90% in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Postoperative GCS scores and GOS scores in the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The rate of postoperative complications in the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The rate of good ADL grading in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Age and surgical method were independent risk factors for poor prognosis. CONCLUSION Microsurgery using the cerebellar medulla fissure approach can effectively improve the condition of severe ventricular hemorrhage with casting of the fourth ventricle and promote the recovery of patients' neurological function.
Early intravenous tranexamic acid intervention reduces post-traumatic hidden blood loss in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture: a randomized controlled trial
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):106
PURPOSE Elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures exhibit post-traumatic hidden blood loss (HBL). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reducing post-traumatic HBL via early intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) intervention in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted with 125 patients (age ≥ 65 years, injury time ≤ 6 h) who presented with intertrochanteric fracture from September 2018 and September 2019. Patients in the TXA group (n = 63) received 1 g of IV TXA at admission, whereas those in the normal saline (NS) group (n = 62) received an equal volume of saline. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) were recorded at post-traumatic admission (PTA) and on post-traumatic days (PTDs) 1-3. HBL was calculated using the Gross formula. Lower extremity venous ultrasound was performed to detect venous thrombosis. RESULTS Hgb on PTDs 2 and 3 was statistically higher in the TXA group than in the NS group. Hct and HBL on PTDs 1-3 were significantly less in the TXA group compared to the NS group. Preoperative transfusion rate was significantly lower in the TXA group compared with the NS group. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the rates of complications. CONCLUSION Early IV TXA intervention could reduce post-traumatic HBL and pre-operative transfusion rate in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures without increasing the risk of venous thrombosis.
Study on the Effect of Nano Albumin Paclitaxel Combined with Carboplatin in the Treatment of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma
J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2020;20(12):7439-7443
This study aims to compare the efficacy and side effects of albumin-binding paclitaxel plus carboplatin (NAB PC) and paclitaxel plus carboplatin (PC) in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 60 patients with advanced NSCLC diagnosed by histopathology or cytology were randomly divided into nab PC group (albumin-binding paclitaxel 130 mg/mL, D1, D; carboplatin AUC = 6, D1) and PC group (paclitaxel 175 mg/mL, D1; carboplatin AUC = 6, D1), one cycle every three weeks. RECIST 1.1 standard was used to evaluate the short-term objective efficacy, and who acute and subacute toxicity classification standard was used to evaluate the toxicity. The total effective rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR) of NAB PC group were 40.0% and 80.0%, respectively, which were higher than 23.3% and 60.0% of the PC group, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, the RR of NAB PC group and PC group were 57.1% (8/14) and 23.1% (3/13) respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05); in non-squamous cell carcinoma, the RR of the two groups were 25.0% (4/16) and 23.3% (4/17) without statistical significance (p > 0.05). The median progression free survival time of the NAB PC group and PC group was 6.5 and 5.9 months, respectively, with no significant difference (p>0.05). No significant difference arose in the incidence of grade III-IV toxicity between the two groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of neutropenia in the NAB PC group was higher than that in the PC group (p < 0.05). The therapeutic effect of paclitaxel combined with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced NSCLC is better, the effect of paclitaxel combined with carboplatin is better, and the side effects can be tolerated, which is worthy of clinical application. Patients are more satisfied with their care.