Darbepoetin alfa injection versus epoetin alfa injection for treating anemia of Chinese hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney failure: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority Phase III trail
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(1):59-70
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein that mainly regulates erythropoiesis. In patients with chronic renal failure with anemia, darbepoetin alfa can stimulate erythropoiesis, correct anemia, and maintain hemoglobin levels. This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injections as being not inferior to epoetin alfa injections (Recombinant Human Erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) when maintaining hemoglobin (Hb) levels within the target range (10.0-12.0 g/dL) for the treatment of renal anemia. METHODS Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study from April 15, 2013 to April 10, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, patients (n = 95) aged 18-70 years were randomized into a once per week intravenous darbepoetin alfa group (n = 56) and a twice or three times per week intravenous epoetin alfa group (n = 39) for 28 weeks, who had anemia with hemoglobin levels between 6 g/dL and 10 g/dL due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and were undergoing hemodialysis or hemofiltration with ESA-naive (erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive). The primary efficacy profile was the mean Hb level (the non-inferiority margin was -1.0 g/dL, week 21-28); the secondary efficacy profiles were the Hb increase rate (week 0-4), the target Hb achievement cumulative rate and time, the change trends of the Hb levels, and the target Hb maintenance ratio. Adverse events (AEs) were observed and compared, and the efficacy and safety were analyzed between the two treatment groups. Additionally, the frequencies of dose adjustments between the darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa groups were compared during the treatment period. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS The mean Hb level was 11.3 g/dL in the darbepoetin alfa group and 10.7 g/dL in the epoetin alfa group, respectively; the difference of the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two groups was 0.1 g/dL (>-1.0 g/dL), and non-inferiority was proven; the Hb levels started to increase in the first four weeks at a similar increase rate; no obvious differences were observed between the groups in the target Hb achievement cumulative rates, and the Hb levels as well as the target Hb level maintenance rate changed over time. The incidence of AEs was 62.5% in the darbepoetin alfa group and 76.9% in the epoetin alfa group. All the adverse events observed in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION Darbepoetin alfa intravenously once per week can effectively increase Hb levels and maintain the target Hb levels well, which makes it not inferior to epoetin alfa intravenously twice or three times per week. Darbepoetin alfa shows an efficacy and safety comparable to epoetin alfa for the treatment of renal anemia.
Efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection for the treatment of renal anemia in Chinese hemodialysis patients: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority phase III trial
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(2):134-144
BACKGROUND This study was to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection (recombinant human erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure in Chinese patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHOD This study was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, intergroup parallel control phase III noninferiority trial from April 19, 2013 to September 9, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, the members of the darbepoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration once per week or once every two weeks. The members of the control drug epoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration two or three times per week. All subjects underwent epoetin alfa administration during the 8-week baseline period. After that, subjects were randomly assigned to the darbepoetin alfa group or epoetin alfa group. The noninferiority in the changes of the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period (noninferiority threshold: -1.0 g/dl) was tested between the two treatments. The time-dependent hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the maintenance rate of the target Hb concentration (the proportion of subjects with Hb concentrations between 10.0 and 12.0 g/dl) were also evaluated. Iron metabolism, including changes in the serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and comparisons of the dose adjustments between the two groups during the treatment period were analyzed further. Adverse events (AEs) were also observed and compared, and the safety was analyzed between the two treatment groups. The conversion rate switching from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa was also discussed. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and ultimately 384 cases were analyzed for safety, including 267 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 117 cases in the epoetin alfa group. There were 211 cases in the per-protocol set, including 152 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 59 cases in the epoetin alfa group. The changes in the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period were -0.07 and -0.15 g/dl in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. The difference between the two groups was 0.08 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.22 to 0.39), and the lower limit of the 95% CI was -0.22 > -1.0 g/dl. The average Hb concentrations of the two groups were 10.88-11.43 g/dl (darbepoetin alfa) and 10.91-11.38 g/dl (epoetin alfa) during the study period of Weeks 0-28, with the maintenance rates of the target Hb concentration ranging within 71%-87% and 78%-95% in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. During the period of comparison between the two groups, the incidence of AEs in the darbepoetin alfa group was 61.42%, while in the epoetin alfa group it was 56.41%. All of the adverse events and reactions in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION The overall efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of Chinese renal anemia patients undergoing hemodialysis are consistent with those of epoetin alfa.
Outcomes of early versus delayed endoscopy in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding: a systematic review with meta-analysis
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2021;33(1S Suppl 1):e868-e876
OBJECTIVES Endoscopy is the mainstay treatment option for acute variceal bleeding (AVB) in liver cirrhosis. However, the optimal timing of endoscopy in such patients remains unclear. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched. We compared the mortality, incidence of rebleeding, length of stay, endoscopic hemostasis, need for salvage and units of transfusion between cirrhotic patients with AVB who underwent early and delayed endoscopy. Meta-analyses were performed by using a random-effect model. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Subgroup analysis was performed in studies where early endoscopy was defined as <12 h. RESULTS Nine retrospective studies involving 2824 patients were included. The early endoscopy group had a significantly lower overall mortality than the delayed endoscopy group in overall analysis (OR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.33-0.95, P = 0.03), but the difference between them was NS in subgroup analysis (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.38-1.38, P = 0.33). In-hospital (OR = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.26-2.32, P = 0.65) and 6-week (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.42-1.47, P = 0.45) mortality were not significantly different between them. Overall rebleeding was not significantly different between early and delayed endoscopy groups in both overall (OR = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.51-1.51, P = 0.63) and subgroup (OR = 1.04, 95% CI, 0.55-1.95, P = 0.90) analyses. In-hospital (OR = 1.41, 95% CI, 0.67-2.96, P = 0.37) and 6-week (OR = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.40-2.17, P = 0.86) rebleeding remained not significantly different between them. Additionally, the length of stay, endoscopic hemostasis, need for salvage and units of transfusion were not significantly different between them. CONCLUSIONS Early endoscopy may improve the survival of cirrhotic patients with AVB, but has no remarkable benefit on the prevention of rebleeding. These findings should be further validated by high-quality studies.
Colloid preloading versus crystalloid preloading to prevent hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, and intravenous fluid preloading is a preventive measure. We aimed to assess the efficacy of colloids versus crystalloids for preloading to reduce the incidence of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension and vasopressor requirement in healthy parturients during elective cesarean delivery. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all studies published to June, 2019, through OVID and PubMed. We included randomized controlled trials, comparing colloid preloading with crystalloid preloading in women having spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Primary outcomes were the incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement. Secondary outcomes included nausea and/or vomiting, neonatal Apgar score, neonatal umbilical blood pH. We used standardized mean differences for expressing continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Random-effect model was performed to estimate the pooled risk ratios and standardized mean differences. RESULTS Thirty-three randomized controlled trials contributed data for this meta-analysis. Fewer women experienced hypotension in the colloid group compared with the crystalloid group (risk ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.82; 2566 women, 32 studies; P < .00001). The total ephedrine dose required was significantly lower with colloid preloading (standardized mean difference: -0.37, 95% CI: -0.64 to -0.09; 1472 women, 19 studies; P = .009). Colloid preloading was also associated with fewer phenylephrine requirement compared with crystalloid preloading (standardized mean difference: -0.54, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.25; 169 women; P = .0002). The incidence of nausea and/or vomiting was significantly reduced with colloid preloading (risk ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; 1601 women, 20 studies; P = .02). However, the incidence of 1-minute Apgar score < 7, umbilical artery pH < 7.2 and umbilical vein pH < 7.2 were not statistically different between groups. CONCLUSIONS Colloid preloading is superior to crystalloid preloading in reducing the incidence of hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia and vasopressor requirement in the healthy parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.The PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018096402.
Prevalence of positivity to antibodies to hepatitis C virus among volunteer blood donors in China: a meta-analysis
Public health. 2021;199:87-95
OBJECTIVES Safe blood transfusion plays an important role in the prevention of transfusion-transmissible infections, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major problems associated with this procedure. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Chinese blood donors. STUDY DESIGN The study design of this study is a meta-analysis. METHODS Eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database and Wanfang literature databases from 2010 to 2020. The effect measure was presented as HCV prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Q test was used to assess the heterogeneity, and the I(2) statistics was determined to decide whether a random effects model or a fixed effects model should be used as the pooling method. Subgroup analyses were also conducted. RESULTS A total of 62 eligible studies, including 9,007,220 HCV blood donors, were analysed. Of the total blood donors, 35,017 were infected with HCV. The pooled HCV prevalence was 0.415% (95% CI: 0.371-0.458). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV antibodies was significantly different in each year (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in HCV prevalence in terms of sex. Moreover, the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV was remarkably higher in first-time blood donors than in repeat blood donors (P < 0.05), and the rate of HCV infection among university students was significantly lower than that among soldiers (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The rate of HCV infection showed a downward trend from 2010 to 2014, increased in 2015-2016, and finally decreased in 2017-2018. Thus, the prevalence of HCV infection has decreased in Chinese blood donors after comprehensive prevention and treatment.
The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Pelvic Radiation Induced Gastrointestinal Complications (Rectal Bleeding, Diarrhea, and Pain): A Meta-Analysis
Front Oncol. 2020;10:390
Background: Radiotherapy is a routine treatment for pelvic cancer patients. While it had been proven effective, gastrointestinal side effects remain a concern, impairing the quality of life. A few studies focused on the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment to alleviate radiation-induced gastrointestinal complications. This meta-analysis aimed to critically review and summarize existing literature, assessing the effectiveness of HBO therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal side effects. Methods: Medical literature search was performed with PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE up to March 14, 2019. Literatures about HBO treatment upon patients undergoing pelvic cancer (endometrial, cervix, rectum, or prostate cancers) radiotherapy were collected, and the effects of HBO treatment on radiotherapy-induced gastrointestinal complications were evaluated. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect size. Subgroup analyses were performed to search for sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was detected with Funnel plots and Egger's test. Results: Three different radiotherapy-related gastrointestinal complications, including rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and pain, were analyzed after screening. It was revealed that the improvement rates were considerable in rectal bleeding (0.81, 95% CI: 0.74-0.89) and diarrhea (0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.90) and slightly in pain (0.58, 95% CI: 0.38-0.79). Subgroup analysis revealed factors that significantly influenced the heterogeneity of rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and pain (evaluation criteria, follow-up time, and scoring system, respectively). No significant publication bias was detected. Conclusion: HBO treatment might have the potential to alleviate radiotherapy-related gastrointestinal complications, including rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and pain, but more data are needed for further conclusions. Other symptoms were not further analyzed, as the number of studies was insufficient. More large-scale and prospective studies are needed for better evaluation of HBO's therapeutic values.
Albumin infusion may decrease the incidence and severity of overt hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis
BACKGROUND The role of human albumin infusion for the prevention and treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver cirrhosis remains unclear. RESULTS Among the 708 patients without pre-existing overt HE, albumin infusion significantly decreased the incidence of overt HE (4.20% versus 12.70%, P<0.001) and in-hospital mortality (1.70% versus 5.40%, P=0.008). Among the 182 patients with overt HE at admission or during hospitalization, albumin infusion significantly improved overt HE (84.60% versus 68.10%, P=0.009) and decreased in-hospital mortality (7.70% versus 19.80%, P=0.018). Meta-analysis of 6 studies found that albumin infusion might decrease the risk of overt HE (OR=1.63, P=0.07), but the difference was not statistically significant. Meta-analysis of 3 studies found that albumin infusion significantly improved overt HE (OR=2.40, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS Based on the results of our retrospective study and meta-analysis, albumin infusion might prevent from the occurrence of overt HE and improve the severity of overt HE in cirrhosis. Our retrospective study also suggested that albumin infusion improved the outcomes of cirrhotic patients regardless of overt HE. METHODS Cirrhotic patients consecutively admitted between January 2010 and June 2014 were considered in a retrospective study. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was performed. Additionally, publications regarding albumin infusion for the management of overt HE were systematically searched. Meta-analyses were performed by random-effect model. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated.
Patient-specific instrumentation improved axial alignment of the femoral component, operative time and perioperative blood loss after total knee arthroplasty
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy : Official Journal of the Esska. 2018
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to compare patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) with standard instrumentation (SI) in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). PSI is hypothesized to have advantages with respect to component alignment; number of outliers (defined as alignment > 3 degrees from the target alignment); operative time; perioperative blood loss; and length of hospital stay. This new surgical technique is expected to exhibit superior performance. METHODS A total of 23 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 2058 knees that compared the clinical outcomes of TKA between PSI and SI were included in the present analysis; these RCTs were identified via a literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases through March 1, 2018. The outcomes of interest included coronal, sagittal and axial component alignment (presented as the angle of deviation from the transcondylar line); number of outliers; operative time; perioperative blood loss; and length of hospital stay. RESULTS There was a significant difference in postoperative femoral axial alignment between PSI and SI patients (95% CI - 0.71 to - 0.21, p = 0.0004, I(2) = 48%). PSI resulted in approximately 0.4 degrees less deviation from the transcondylar line than SI. Based on our results, PSI reduced operative time by a mean of 7 min compared with SI (95% CI - 10.95 to - 3.75, p < 0.0001, I(2) = 78%). According to the included literature, PSI reduced perioperative blood loss by approximately 90 ml compared with SI (95% CI - 146.65 to - 20.18, p = 0.01, I(2) = 74%). We did not find any differences between PSI and SI with respect to any other parameters. CONCLUSIONS PSI has advantages in axial alignment of the femoral component, operative time, and perioperative blood loss relative to SI. No significant differences were found between PSI and SI with respect to alignment of the remaining components, number of outliers, or length of hospital stay. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic study (systematic review and meta-analysis), Level I.
A prospective study comparing platelet-rich plasma and LA/corticosteroid in intra-articular injection for the treatment of lumbar facet joint syndrome
Pain Practice : the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain. 2016;17((7):):914-924
OBJECTIVES To compare the effectiveness and safety between autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and LA/corticosteroid in intra-articular injection for the treatment of lumbar facet joint syndrome. METHODS Forty-six eligible patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome were randomized into group A (intra-articular injection with PRP) and group B (intra-articular injection with LA/corticosteroid). The following contents were evaluated: pain visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during flexion, and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and modified MacNab criteria for pain relief and applications of post-treatment drugs. All outcome assessments were performed immediately after and at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. RESULTS No significant difference between groups was observed at baseline. Compared with pretreatment, both group A and group B demonstrated statistical improvements in the pain VAS score at rest or during flexion, the RMQ, and the ODI (P < 0.01). And there were significant differences between the 2 groups on the above-mentioned items (P < 0.05). For group B, subjective satisfaction based on the modified MacNab criteria and objective success rate were highest (80% and 85%) after 1 month, but only 50% and 20% after 6 months. However, for group A, they increased over time. In addition, there were no treatment-related complications in either group during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Both autologous PRP and LA/corticosteroid for intra-articular injection are effective, easy, and safe enough in the treatment of lumbar facet joint syndrome. However, autologous PRP is a superior treatment option for longer duration efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.