Safety and efficacy of thalidomide in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia: a randomized clinical trial
Chen JM, Zhu WJ, Liu J, Wang GZ, Chen XQ, Tan Y, Xu WW, Qu LW, Li JY, Yang HJ, et al
Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2021;6(1):405
Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non β0/β0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.
Multimodal Peri-articular Injection with Tranexamic Acid can reduce postoperative blood loss versus Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Peng HM, Wang W, Lin J, Weng XS, Qian WW, Wang WD
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):546
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) has shown significant reductions in blood loss and transfusion rates in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the optimal administration route continues to be debated. The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) versus peri-articular injection (PAI) application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled, double-blinded study. A total of 93 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA were randomly distributed between 2 groups: the IV group (47 cases; 1 g TXA IV) and the PAI group (46 cases; 1 g TXA injected peri-articularly). The amount of total and hidden blood loss (HBL), drainage, transfusion rate, hemoglobin and hematocrit drift, and complications were recorded. RESULTS Peri-articular injection of TXA reduced total blood loss (P < 0.001) and HBL more than IV use of TXA (P < 0.001). No patients in either group received a transfusion. No symptomatic deep venous thrombosis or other severe complications occurred. CONCLUSION Peri-articular injection of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss and hidden blood loss to a greater degree than IV injection in total knee arthroplasty without reduction of drainage volume. TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-INR-16010270 . Date of registration: December 27, 2016.