Effect of Oral Tranexamic Acid on the Blood Transfusion Rate and the Incidence of Deep Vein Thromboembolism in Patients after TKA
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2022;2022:6041827
PURPOSE To explore the effect of oral tranexamic acid treatment on the blood transfusion rate and the incidence of deep vein thromboembolism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS 90 patients undergoing TKA admitted to First People's Hospital of Changshu City from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected and randomized into the control group and the experimental group accordingly (45 cases in each group). The control group intravenously received 20 mL/kg tranexamic acid before the incision was closed. The experimental group was given 1 g of tranexamic acid orally before anesthesia, 6 h and 12 h after the operation. RESULTS The experimental group witnessed better perioperative indexes in relation to the control group. The experimental group displayed better postoperative coagulation function indexes as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Remarkably lower postoperative vascular endothelial function indexes in the experimental group than in the control group were observed. The experimental group experienced a markedly lower incidence of deep vein thromboembolism in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). The postoperative knee society score (KSS) score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. A significantly higher postoperative modified rivermead mobility index (MRMI) score was yielded in the experimental group in contrast to the control group (P < 0.05). The experimental group obtained lower numerical rating scale (NRS) scores at T2 and T3 as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION Oral tranexamic acid is a suitable alternative for patients undergoing TKA in terms of reducing the blood transfusion rate, relieving pain, and accelerating the recovery of the patient's limbs.
Antiplatelet therapy for patients with COVID-19: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:965790
BACKGROUND Hyperinflammation and coagulopathy are hallmarks of COVID-19 and synergistically contribute to illness progression. Antiplatelet agents have been proposed as candidate drugs for COVID-19 treatment on the basis of their antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties. A systematic review and meta-analysis that included early observational studies and recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize and compare evidence on this issue. METHODS PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched to identify studies published up to Nov 7, 2021, and the results of registered clinical trials were followed up to Mar 30, 2022. We included RCTs and observational studies assessing the effect of antiplatelet therapy in adult patients with COVID-19. Data on baseline patient characteristics, interventions, controls, and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome was mortality. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies were included, of which 23 observational studies were pooled in a meta-analysis, and the remaining four RCTs (ACTIV-4B, RECOVERY, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP) were narratively synthesized. Based on 23 observational studies of 87,824 COVID-19 patients, antiplatelet treatment favors a lower risk of mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.85; I (2) = 87.0%, P < 0.01]. The narrative synthesis of RCTs showed conflicting evidence, which did not support adding antiplatelet therapy to the standard care, regardless of the baseline illness severity and concomitant anticoagulation intensity. CONCLUSION While the rationale for using antiplatelet treatment in COVID-19 patients is compelling and was supported by the combined result of early observational studies, evidence from RCTs did not confirm this approach. Several factors that could explain this inconsistency were highlighted alongside perspectives on future research directions.
Comparison of transfusion reactions in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2022;:e29842
BACKGROUND There are no international standards or normalizations for diagnosing and treating complications from blood transfusions. We comprehensively compared the incidence of adverse blood transfusions in children and adults. METHODS Available literature on blood transfusion adverse reactions in children and adults prior to November 27, 2021 was collected from several electronic databases. This meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 and Stata 15.1. RESULTS The incidence of transfusion reactions is higher in children than in adults. Children transfused with red blood cells and platelets exhibited a higher incidence of transfusion reaction than that of adults. Moreover, the incidence of allergic and febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions was significantly higher in children than in adults. The incidence of some rare transfusion reactions was also significantly higher in children than in adults. CONCLUSION The incidence of transfusion reactions in children and adults is varied. Guidelines for children are necessary.
Increased local concentrations of growth factors from leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin do not translate into improved alveolar ridge preservation: an intraindividual mechanistic randomized controlled trial
Journal of clinical periodontology. 2022
AIMS: Leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) has been tested for enhancing alveolar ridge preservation (ARP), but little is known about the local release profile of growth factors (GF) and the clinical equipoise related to its efficacy remains. This study compared the patterns of GF release, early soft tissue healing and alveolar ridge resorption following unassisted healing and L-PRF application in non-molar extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS Atraumatic tooth extraction of two hopeless teeth per patient was followed by unassisted healing or L-PRF placement to fill the socket in 18 systemically healthy, nonsmoking subjects. This intraindividual trial was powered to assess changes in horizontal alveolar ridge dimensions 1 mm below the crest of alveolar bone. GF concentrations in wound fluid were assessed with a multiplex assay at 6, 24, 72 and 168 hours. Early healing was evaluated with the wound-healing index and changes in soft tissue volumes on serial digital scans. Hard tissue changes were measured on superimposed CBCT images after 5 months of healing. RESULTS L-PRF resulted in higher GF concentrations in WF as compared to the control, but no differences in release patterns or time of peak were observed. No intergroup differences in early healing parameters were observed. Alveolar bone resorption was observed in both groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in hard tissue healing 1, 3 or 5 mm apical to the original bone crest, or in ability to digitally plan a prosthetically guided implant with or without bone augmentation. CONCLUSIONS L-PRF increased the GF concentrations in wound fluid of extraction sockets without shifting the pattern observed in unassisted healing, while the increased delivery did not translate into clinical benefits in early wound healing or ARP. The current findings question the assumption that increased local concentrations of GF by L-PRF translate into improved clinical outcomes. Additional definitive studies are needed to establish the benefits of L-PRF in ARP. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03985033).
The effect of tranexamic acid on myocardial injury in cardiac surgical patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2022
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the most commonly used antifibrinolytic agents for surgical patients. However, the effect of TXA on myocardial injury remains controversial. We systemically reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of TXA on myocardial injury in patients who have undergone a cardiac surgery. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TXA and control (saline) in cardiac surgical patients. Relevant studies were identified by a comprehensive electronic literature search from database inception to 15 August 2021. A standardized data extraction form was used to collect methodological and outcome variables from each eligible study. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of TXA administration on myocardial injury. In total, eight RCTs were identified, with 292 patients in the TXA group, and 241 patients in saline or control group. The meta-analysis demonstrated that patients in the TXA group had lower levels of CK-MB and cTnI within 24 h postoperatively (CK-MB: P = 0.005; cTnI: P = 0.01), compared with the saline group. No significant difference was found with respect to AST level (P = 0.71) between TXA and saline groups within 24 h postoperatively. TXA administration was found to be associated with less myocardial injury among patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. High-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted to further examine the cardioprotective effects of TXA.
Effectiveness and tolerability of different therapies in preventive treatment of MOG-IgG-associated disorder: A network meta-analysis
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:953993
BACKGROUND Immunotherapy has been shown to reduce relapses in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorder (MOG-AD); however, the superiority of specific treatments remains unclear. AIM: To identify the efficacy and tolerability of different treatments for MOG-AD. METHODS Systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 1, 2021, were performed. Published articles including patients with MOG-AD and reporting the efficacy or tolerability of two or more types of treatment in preventing relapses were included. Reported outcomes including incidence of relapse, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and side effects were extracted. Network meta-analysis with a random-effect model within a Bayesian framework was conducted. Between group comparisons were estimated using Odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS Twelve studies that compared the efficacy of 10 different treatments in preventing MOG-AD relapse, including 735 patients, were analyzed. In terms of incidence of relapse, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), oral corticosteroids (OC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), and rituximab (RTX) were all significantly more effective than no treatment (ORs ranged from 0.075 to 0.34). On the contrary, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) (OR=1.3, 95% CrI: 0.31 to 5.0) and tacrolimus (TAC) (OR=5.9, 95% CrI: 0.19 to 310) would increase the incidence of relapse. Compared with DMT, IVIG significantly reduced the ARR (MD=-0.85, 95% CrI: -1.7 to -0.098). AZA, MMF, OC and RTX showed a trend to decrease ARR, but those results did not reach significant differences. The combined results for relapse rate and adverse events, as well as ARR and adverse events showed that IVIG and OC were the most effective and tolerable therapies. CONCLUSIONS Whilst DMT should be avoided, IVIG and OC may be suited as first-line therapies for patients with MOG-AD. RTX, MMF, and AZA present suitable alternatives.
Efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2021
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions. METHODS Forty patients who suffered from infertility with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) were enrolled in this prospective trial from October 2018 to December 2019. They were randomly divided into a PRF group and a control group. Both groups underwent transcervical resection of adhesions (TCRA) during the follicular phase. PRF group: PRF prepared from autologous venous blood was placed in the uterine cavity after TCRA and after the first menstrual re-fluid; control group: no PRF insertion. After the second menstrual re-fluid, both groups underwent hysteroscopy to reevaluate adhesion severity. Pregnancy rate, intrauterine adhesion score, menstrual volume and duration, and endometrial thickness were assessed and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS (1) PRF group pregnancy rate was significantly higher than the control group (55.0% vs. 20.0%). Mean follow-up time was (17.63 ± 2.33) months. All patients fell pregnant naturally. Four (PRF) and one (control) patients delivered live births without placental complications. (2) Intrauterine adhesion scores decreased compared with treatment-before. (3) In the pictorial blood loss assessment chart, score and menstrual duration during the 3rd menstrual cycle showed significant improvements for both groups. (4) Endometrial thickness also showed an increasing trend, and subendometrial bloodflow improved. (5) No treatment-related serious adverse events were noted. CONCLUSION Placing PRF into the uterine cavity of infertility patients with IUAs following TCRA is a safe and effective therapeutic method.
Effects of Isovolumic Hemodilution and Platelet-Rich Plasma Separation on Platelet Activation State and Function, Complications, and Inflammation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
Clinical laboratory. 2021;67(1)
BACKGROUND To explore the effects of isovolumic hemodilution and platelet-rich plasma separation on platelet activation state and function, complications, and inflammation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS A total of 80 patients who needed cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation from February 2018 to December 2019 in our hospital were selected as research subjects and divided into observation group (n = 40) and control group (n = 40) according to the random number table method. The patients in the observation group underwent platelet-rich plasma separation, while those in control group received acute isovolumic hemodilution. Then the platelet activation state and functional indexes, hemorheological indexes, and the coagulation functional indexes were compared between the two groups of patients before operation. Next, the changes in the levels of hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory factor, during blood protection (before and at 6 hours and 12 hours after intervention) were analyzed. Moreover, the dosage of blood products during operation was compared between the two groups, and postoperative complications and recovery in the two groups were statistically assessed. RESULTS Before operation, the platelet adherence rate and aggregation rate in the observation group were significantly higher than those in control group (p < 0.05), while R and K values in thromboelastograms in the former were notably smaller than those in the latter (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the whole blood low-shear viscosity, whole blood high-shear viscosity, and plasma viscosity in observation group were remarkably lower than those in control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the observation group exhibited shorter prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (p < 0.05) and a higher fibrinogen (Fib) level (p < 0.05) than the control group. At 6 hours and 12 hours after intervention and before operation, the hemoglobin level in observation group was markedly higher than that in control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the dosages of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets among blood products during operation in the observation group were evidently lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05), and the number of cases of hemorrhage, pulmonary infection, coagulation dysfunction, and paraplegia after operation in the former was distinctly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the observation group had an obviously smaller postoperative 24 hours drainage volume (p < 0.05) as well as shorter postoperative mechanical ventilation time and ICU treatment time than control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS For patients undergoing cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation, platelet-rich plasma separation and reinfusion technology can effectively ensure platelet activation state and function, reduce blood viscosity, ensure stable coagulation function, elevate hemoglobin level and decrease inflammatory reaction, and perioperative allogeneic blood infusion, with fewer adverse reactions in treatment, thus efficaciously facilitating the post-operative recovery of patients.
Early Lactate-Guided Resuscitation of Elderly Septic Patients
Journal of intensive care medicine. 2021;:8850666211023347
BACKGROUND Early lactate-guided resuscitation was endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy to decrease the mortality of patients admitted to the ICU department with septic shock. However, its effectiveness in elderly Asian patients is uncertain. METHOD We conducted a single-center trial to test the effectiveness of the early lactate-guided resuscitation of older Asian patients at the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Eligible septic shock patients who consented to participation in the study were randomly assigned to receive early lactate-guided treatment or regular treatment as controls. RESULT A total of 82 patients met the hyperlactatemia criteria and participated in the trial. Forty-two patients received early lactate-guided treatment (lactate group) and 40 received regular treatment (control group). The lactate group received more fluids at initial 6 hours (3.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.4 ± 1.7 L, P = 0.01), but similar proportions of patients in both groups required the use of vasopressors and vasodilators. Patients in the lactate group showed significantly reduced ICU needs compared to the control group, which were weaned from mechanical ventilation more quickly (median 7, IQR 4 to 14 vs median 9, IQR 4.3 to 17.8, P = 0.02) and transferred out of the ICU earlier (median 4.5, IQR 2.8 to 7.3 vs median 6, IQR 3.2 to 8, P = 0.01). However, the hospital mortality (35.7% vs 42.5%, P = 0.35) and ICU mortality (31.0% vs 37.5%, P = 0.38) for both groups were not reduced. CONCLUSION For critically ill patients (elderly Asian patients) admitted to the ICU department with hyperlactatemia, early lactate-guided treatment reduced ICU needs but did not reduce mortality.
Restrictive versus liberal transfusion thresholds in very low birth weight infants: A systematic review with meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(8):e0256810
BACKGROUND To assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion thresholds in very low birth weight infants. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database without any language restrictions. The last search was conducted in August 15, 2020. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion thresholds in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants were selected. Pooled risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous variable with 95% confidence intervals were assessed by a random-effects model. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS Overall, this meta-analysis included 6 randomized controlled trials comprising 3,483 participants. Restrictive transfusion does not increase the risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.17; I2 = 0%; high-quality evidence), and does not increase the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (RR, 1.01, 95% CI, 0.93-1.09; I2 = 7%; high-quality evidence) or other serious adverse events. Results were similar in subgroup analyses of all-cause mortality by weight of infants, gestational age, male infants, and transfusion volume. CONCLUSIONS In very low birth weight infants, a restrictive threshold for red blood cell transfusion was not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, in either short term or long term.
Very low birth weight infants (6 studies, n= 3,483).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion threshold.
Liberal red blood cell transfusion threshold.
Restrictive transfusion did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 0.99; I2 = 0%; high-quality evidence), and did not increase the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (RR, 1.01; I2 = 7%; high-quality evidence) or other serious adverse events. Results were similar in subgroup analyses of all-cause mortality by weight of infants, gestational age, male infants, and transfusion volume.