The safty profile of blood salvage applied for collected blood with amniotic fluid during cesarean section
BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2022;22(1):160
BACKGROUND The guidelines of National Health Service(NHS, the United Kingdom) recommended for use in obstetrics at increased risk of bleeding, requiring two suction devices to reduce amniotic fluid contamination, however, when comes to massive hemorrhage, it is may difficult to operate because the complex operation may delay time. The aim of the study was to detect the effect of amniotic fluid recovery on intraoperative cell salvage in obstetrics and provide evidence for clinical applications. METHOD Thirty-four patients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the cumulative blood from the operation field, including the amniotic fluid, was collected using a single suction device for processing. In group 2, after suctioning away the amniotic fluid using another suction device for the cumulative blood from the operation field. From each group, four samples were taken, including maternal venous blood (sample I), blood before washing (sample II), blood after washing (sample III) and blood after filtration with a leukocyte filter (sample IV), to detect serum potassium (K +), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and squamous cell (SC) levels. RESULTS The AFP, K + and WBC levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly lower than sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05). Significantly more SCs were found in sample III than in sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05), but SCs of sample IV had no statistical difference compared to sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the K + , Hb, WBC, AFP and SC levels of sample IV between group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). The HbF levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION There is little or no possibility for AF contamination to enter the re-infusion system when used in conjunction with a leucodepletion filter. For maternal with Rh-negative blood, we recommend two suction devices to reduce HbF pollution. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR1800015684 , 2018.4.15.
The effect of previous oral anticoagulant use on clinical outcomes in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2022;54:107-110
Data on the prognosis of patients treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC) prior to hospital admission for COVID-19 remains controversial and insufficient. Therefore, we endeavored to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of chronic use of OAC prior to the diagnosis of COVID-19 on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. An electronic search of the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library databases was conducted. Meta-analysis and statistical analyses were completed with using the RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0. A total of 13 articles representing data from 1,266,231 participants were included in this study. The meta-analysis of unadjusted results showed no decrease in mortality (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.73, P = 0.059) or ICU admission rate (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.77, P = 0.46) in COVID-19 patients with prior OAC therapy at hospital admission compared to patients without prior use of OAC. Moreover, the meta-analysis of adjusted results showed no lower risk of mortality (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.30, P = 0.415) or ICU admission (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.72 to 3.12, P = 0.284) in patients with prior OAC use compared to patients without previous OAC use. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of OAC prior to hospital admission appeared to be ineffective in reducing the risk of intensive care need and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate and optimize the use of OAC in COVID-19 infection.
Injection of leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma for moderate-to-large rotator cuff tears do not improve clinical outcomes but reduce retear rates and fatty infiltration: A prospective single-blinded randomized study
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2022
OBJECTIVES To determine whether leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (Lp-PRP) reduced retear rates, reduced fatty infiltration and improved functional outcomes in patients with degenerative moderate-to-large RCTs. METHODS This was a randomized controlled study at a single centre. Consecutive series of 104 patients with moderate-to-large rotator cuff tears were enrolled and randomly allocated to a control group (double-row suture-bridge arthroscopic rotator cuff repair alone, n=52) and a study group (double-row suture-bridge repair followed by three Lp-PRP injections at the tendon repair site during surgery, at days 7 and 14 after surgery, n=52). All patients were followed up for 27.2 months (range 24-36 months), with UCLA shoulder rating scale, the Constant score and a visual analog scale (VAS) evaluated respectively. The integrity and fatty infiltration of repaired tissue were assessed by MRI using the Sugaya classification and Goutallier grade classification at 24 months after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed based on T-test, chi-square test and the Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient. RESULTS 4 patients refused follow-up, and 11 patients had incomplete data. Eventually, a total of 89 patients were available for 24 months follow-up. The mean UCLA score increased from 14.802.53 to 29.372.06 in control group and from 13.743.30 to 30.142.32 in study group (p=0.103). The mean Constant score increased from 46.565.90 to 86.834.94 in control group and from 44.377.92 to 88.804.92 in study group (p=0.063). The VAS score decreased from 3.221.24 to 0.971.12 in control group and in 3.491.52 to 1.160.99 in study group (p=0.41). All differences of UCLA score, Constant score and VAS between pre- and post-operation achieve minimal clinically important difference (MCID) proposed for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Of the 89 patients, 76 had MRI performed at 24 months after surgery. The retear rate was 17.6% in study group, which was lower than that in control group (38.1%, p=0.049). And the Goutallier grade was found to be significant difference between groups postoperatively (Kendall tau-b -0.24, p=0.03), but no significant difference preoperatively (Kendall tau-b -0.18, p=0.11). There were no complications in all patients. CONCLUSION Our procedures, involving repeated injections of Lp-PRP during surgery and at days 7 and 14, as described in this study, has positive effects on reducing retear rate and promoting Goutallier grade by patients following arthroscopic RCR, and could also provide substantial clinical outcomes that reaching MCID for surgical treatment. However, given the numbers available for analysis, it did not promote better clinical results when compared with the control group.
Convalescent plasma may not be an effective treatment for severe and critically ill covid-19 patients: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. 2022;53:51-60
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma treatment for severe and critically ill Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical improvement and mortality risk of convalescent plasma treatment in patients with severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS A literature search was conducted in the electronic databases for the randomized controlled studies about convalescent plasma therapy in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant data. The primary outcomes were clinical improvement and mortality risk of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients that were therapied by convalescent plasma. RESULTS A total of 14 randomized controlled trials with 4543 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to control, no significant difference was observed for either clinical improvement (6 studies, RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17, p = 0.16, moderate certainty) or mortality risk (14 studies, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.03, p= 0.18, low certainty) in patients of convalescent plasma therapy group. CONCLUSION Convalescent plasma did not increase the clinical improvement or reduce the mortality risk in the severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Local administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid reduces post-operative blood loss from surgery for closed, Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures
International orthopaedics. 2022
PURPOSE To investigate whether local administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is effective and safe in reducing the post-operative blood loss in surgery for Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures. METHODS Patients with Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 2016 to February 2021 and underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) via lateral approach with an L-shaped incision were included in the current study. Eighty five patients were randomly divided into two groups, EACA group (43) and control group (42). Twenty milliliters of 5% EACA solution or normal saline was perfused into the incision of patients in EACA group and control group, respectively. The volume of post-operative drainage was investigated as the primary outcome. Post-operative blood test, coagulation test, and wound complications were analyzed as the secondary outcomes. RESULTS The volume of post-operative drainage at 24 and 48 h was 164.8 ± 51.4 ml, 18.9 ± 3.8 ml for patients in EACA group, and 373.0 ± 88.1 ml, 21.2 ± 4.4 ml for patients in the control group, respectively. EACA greatly reduced the post-operative blood loss compared to the control (normal saline). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was found between EACA group and control group with regard to the pre-operative, baseline characteristics. Post-operative blood test results demonstrated that haemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in EACA compared to those of control group. No significant difference was found between EACA group and control group in terms of the platelet counts, prothrombin time (P.T.), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), and wound complications. CONCLUSION Local administration of EACA is effective in post-operative blood loss reduction in ORIF surgeries for Sanders III-IV types of calcaneal fractures without increasing the incidence of periwound complication.
Comparison of the Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of STEMI Patients Presenting With vs. Those of Patients Presenting Without COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2022;9:831143
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate the differences in the characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of patients with and that of those without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS Databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched up to July 2021. Observational studies that reported on the characteristics, management, or clinical outcomes and those published as full-text articles were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of all included studies. RESULTS A total of 27,742 patients from 13 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant delay in symptom onset to first medical contact (SO-to-FMC) time (mean difference = 23.42 min; 95% CI: 5.85-40.99 min; p = 0.009) and door-to-balloon (D2B) time (mean difference = 12.27 min; 95% CI: 5.77-18.78 min; p = 0.0002) was observed in COVID-19 patients. Compared to COVID-19 negative patients, those who are positive patients had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and thrombus grade (p < 0.05) and showed more frequent use of thrombus aspiration and glycoprotein IIbIIIa (Gp2b3a) inhibitor (p < 0.05). COVID-19 positive patients also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (OR = 5.98, 95% CI: 4.78-7.48, p < 0.0001), cardiogenic shock (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 2.02-3.76, p < 0.0001), and stent thrombosis (OR = 5.65, 95% CI: 2.41-13.23, p < 0.0001). They were also more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 2.51-7.22, p < 0.0001) and had a longer length of stay (mean difference = 4.63 days; 95% CI: 2.56-6.69 days; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that COVID-19 infection had an impact on the time of initial medical intervention for patients with STEMI after symptom onset and showed that COVID-19 patients with STEMI were more likely to have thrombosis and had poorer outcomes.
Erythropoietin Improves Poor Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage
CNS drugs. 2021
BACKGROUND Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication in preterm infants that has poor outcomes, especially in severe cases, and there are currently no widely accepted effective treatments. Erythropoietin has been shown to be neuroprotective in neonatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of repeated low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in preterm infants with IVH. METHODS This was a single-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age who were diagnosed with IVH within 72 h after birth were randomized to receive rhEPO 500 IU/kg or placebo (equivalent volume of saline) every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. RESULTS A total of 316 eligible infants were included in the study, with 157 in the rhEPO group and 159 in the placebo group. Although no significant differences in mortality (p = 0.176) or incidence of neurological disability (p = 0.055) separately at 18 months of corrected age were seen between the rhEPO and placebo groups, significantly fewer infants had poor outcomes (death and neurological disability) in the rhEPO group: 14.9 vs. 26.4%; odds ratio (OR) 0.398; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.199-0.796; p = 0.009. In addition, the incidence of Mental Development Index scores of < 70 was lower in the rhEPO group than in the placebo group: 7.2 vs. 15.3%; OR 0.326; 95% CI 0.122-0.875; p = 0.026. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with repeated low-dose rhEPO improved outcomes in preterm infants with IVH. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 16 April 2019 (NCT03914690).
Effect of Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma vs Placebo Injection on Pain and Medial Tibial Cartilage Volume in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: The RESTORE Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Most clinical guidelines do not recommend platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) because of lack of high-quality evidence on efficacy for symptoms and joint structure, but the guidelines emphasize the need for rigorous studies. Despite this, use of PRP in knee OA is increasing. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of intra-articular PRP injections on symptoms and joint structure in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate radiographic medial knee OA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This randomized, 2-group, placebo-controlled, participant-, injector-, and assessor-blinded clinical trial enrolled community-based participants (n = 288) aged 50 years or older with symptomatic medial knee OA (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3) in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, from August 24, 2017, to July 5, 2019. The 12-month follow-up was completed on July 22, 2020. INTERVENTIONS Interventions involved 3 intra-articular injections at weekly intervals of either leukocyte-poor PRP using a commercially available product (n = 144 participants) or saline placebo (n = 144 participants). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 2 primary outcomes were 12-month change in overall average knee pain scores (11-point scale; range, 0-10, with higher scores indicating worse pain; minimum clinically important difference of 1.8) and percentage change in medial tibial cartilage volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-one secondary outcomes (25 symptom related and 6 MRI assessed; minimum clinically important difference not known) evaluated pain, function, quality of life, global change, and joint structures at 2-month and/or 12-month follow-up. RESULTS Among 288 patients who were randomized (mean age, 61.9 [SD, 6.5] years; 169 [59%] women), 269 (93%) completed the trial. In both groups, 140 participants (97%) received all 3 injections. After 12 months, treatment with PRP vs placebo injection resulted in a mean change in knee pain scores of -2.1 vs -1.8 points, respectively (difference, -0.4 [95% CI, -0.9 to 0.2] points; P = .17). The mean change in medial tibial cartilage volume was -1.4% vs -1.2%, respectively (difference, -0.2% [95% CI, -1.9% to 1.5%]; P = .81). Of 31 prespecified secondary outcomes, 29 showed no significant between-group differences. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with symptomatic mild to moderate radiographic knee OA, intra-articular injection of PRP, compared with injection of saline placebo, did not result in a significant difference in symptoms or joint structure at 12 months. These findings do not support use of PRP for the management of knee OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ACTRN12617000853347.
Preradiosurgery embolization in reducing the postoperative hemorrhage rate for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neurosurgical review. 2021
Few studies have examined the postoperative hemorrhage rate of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by embolization prior to stereotactic radiosurgery. The objective of this analysis was to compare the postoperative hemorrhage rate between AVMs treated with and those treated without preradiosurgery embolization. A systematic search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed with no restriction on the publication period. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we included studies with sufficient baseline and outcome data. The analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) 2.0. Eleven studies comprising 2591 patients were eligible for analysis. There was no significant difference in the postoperative hemorrhage rate between patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS and those who had undergone SRS alone (OR 1.140, 95% CI 0.851-1.526, p = 0.38). The obliteration rate was significantly lower in the E + SRS group than in the SRS group (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.398-0.863, p = 0.007). No significant difference in permanent neurological deficits was identified between patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS and those who had undergone SRS alone (OR 1.175, 95% CI 0.626-2.206, p = 0.616). Available data suggested that preradiosurgery embolization did not reduce the postoperative hemorrhage rate and resulted in a significantly lower obliteration rate than treatment with SRS alone.
All-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021;8(10):e688-e699
BACKGROUND High-dose dexamethasone is the standard initial treatment for patients with immune thrombocytopenia, but many patients still relapse and require further treatments. All-trans retinoic acid has been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects and promote thrombopoiesis, and so we aimed to assess the activity and safety of all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as a first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients with immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS This multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial was done at six different tertiary medical centres in China. Eligible participants were adults (aged >18 years) with treatment-naive, newly diagnosed, primary immune thrombocytopenia who had either a platelet count of less than 30 × 10(9) platelets per L or a platelet count of less than 50 × 10(9) platelets per L and clinically significant bleeding. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to receive either all-trans retinoic acid (10 mg orally twice daily for 12 weeks) plus high-dose dexamethasone (40 mg/day intravenously for 4 consecutive days) or high-dose dexamethasone alone using a central, web-based randomisation system. If patients did not respond by day 14, the 4-day course of dexamethasone was repeated. The primary endpoint was 6-month sustained response, defined as the maintenance of a platelet count of at least 30 × 10(9) platelets per L and at least 2-times higher than the baseline count and the absence of bleeding, with no need for rescue medication at this time. The primary endpoint was analysed by intention-to-treat and safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04217148, and is now completed. FINDINGS Between Jan 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, 132 patients were randomly assigned to either all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone (n=66) or high-dose dexamethasone alone (n=66). Three patients did not receive their allocated treatment, leaving 129 in the safety analysis set. At 6 months, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone group (45 [68%] of 66) than in the high-dose dexamethasone monotherapy group (27 [41%] of 66) had a sustained response (OR 3·095, 95% CI 1·516-6·318; p=0·0017). The most common adverse events were dry skin (31 [48%] of 64 patients), headaches (12 [19%]), and insomnia (12 [19%]) in the combination group, and insomnia (ten [15%] of 65 patients) and anxiety or mood disorders (eight [12%]) in the monotherapy group. Both treatments were well tolerated and no grade 4 or worse adverse events occurred. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION The combination of all-trans retinoic acid and high-dose dexamethasone was safe and active in newly diagnosed patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia, providing a sustained response. This regimen represents a potential first-line treatment in this setting, but further studies are needed to validate its efficacy and safety. FUNDING The Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China.