Potentially effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 or MIS-C in children: a systematic review
European journal of pediatrics. 2022;:1-12
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using potential drugs: remdesivir and glucocorticoid in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating MIS-C. We searched seven databases, three preprint platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google from December 1, 2019, to August 5, 2021, to collect evidence of remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and IVIG which were used in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. A total of nine cohort studies and one case series study were included in this systematic review. In terms of remdesivir, the meta-analysis of single-arm cohort studies have shown that after the treatment, 54.7% (95%CI, 10.3 to 99.1%) experienced adverse events, 5.6% (95%CI, 1.2 to 10.1%) died, and 27.0% (95%CI, 0 to 73.0%) needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or invasive mechanical ventilation. As for glucocorticoids, the results of the meta-analysis showed that the fixed-effect summary odds ratio for the association with mortality was 2.79 (95%CI, 0.13 to 60.87), and the mechanical ventilation rate was 3.12 (95%CI, 0.80 to 12.08) for glucocorticoids compared with the control group. In terms of IVIG, most of the included cohort studies showed that for MIS-C patients with more severe clinical symptoms, IVIG combined with methylprednisolone could achieve better clinical efficacy than IVIG alone.Conclusions: Overall, the current evidence in the included studies is insignificant and of low quality. It is recommended to conduct high-quality randomized controlled trials of remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C to provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines. What is Known: • The efficacy and safety of using potential drugs such as remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19/MIS-C are unclear. What is New: • Overall, the current evidence cannot adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of using remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. • We are calling for the publication of high-quality clinical trials and provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines.
Clinical efficacy of comprehensive nursing in patients with cerebral hemorrhagic hemiplegia
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):5526-5532
OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy of comprehensive rehabilitation nursing (CRN) intervention in patients with cerebral hemorrhagic hemiplegia (CHH). METHODS A total of 102 patients with CHH admitted to our hospital were selected for the prospective study. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (n=51) and the observation group (n=51) according to the random number table method. Routine nursing was performed in the control group, while CRN was conducted in the observation group. Fugl-Meyer motor function assessment scale, activity of daily living scale (Barthel index), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), complications and muscle strength improvement (Brunnstrom assessment) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS Compared with those before nursing, Fugl-Meyer score, Barthel index and SAS score in the two groups after nursing were significantly improved (P<0.01). Fugl-Meyer score and Barthel index of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group after nursing, while SAS score showed the opposite change (P<0.001). The incidence of complications in the control group was 49.02%, and that in the observation group was 29.41% (P<0.05). The rate of muscle strength improvement in the observation group was 80.39% after nursing, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (60.78%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION CRN intervention has a positive clinical efficacy in patients with CHH. It can enhance motor ability, improve the ability of daily life, amend psychological mood and reduce the incidence of complications.
The Function of Tranexamic Acid to Prevent Hematoma Expansion After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis From Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:710568
Objectives: The clinical results caused by spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are disastrous to most patient. As tranexamic acid (TXA) has been proved to decrease the influence of ICH, we conducted this research to explore the function of TXA for the prognosis of ICH compared with placebo. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were performed to evaluate TXA vs. placebo for ICH up to February 2021. The data were assessed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The risk ratio (RR) and mean difference were analyzed using dichotomous outcomes and continuous outcomes, respectively, with a fixed effect model. Results: We collected 2,479 patients from four RCTs. Then, we took the change of hematoma volume, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and adverse events as evaluation standard of the treatment for ICH. Through statistical analysis, we found that there is no obvious hematoma expansion effect after the application of TXA (RR = 1.05), and we proceeded the quantitative analysis of percentage change in hematoma volume from baseline, indicating that TXA could inhibit the expansion of hematoma volume (RR = -2.02) compared with placebo. However, according to the outcomes of mRS (0-1, RR = 1.04; 0-2, RR = 0.96), TXA cannot improve neurological functional prognosis. As for the security outcomes-mortality (RR = 1.02), thromboembolic events (RR = 0.99), neurological deterioration (RR = 0.92), infection (RR = 0.86), and craniotomy (RR = 0.41), there seems exist no statistical difference between TXA and placebo. Conclusions: TXA has an advantage in the aspect of preventing hematoma expansion compared with placebo for ICH, but cannot illustrate the efficacy of TXA in improving neurological functional prognosis, which still needs more researches with large sample sizes. Moreover, for safety, we did not find obvious statistical difference between TXA and placebo.
Clinical Features in Children With Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736352
Objective: This study aimed to identify the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) in children. Methods: The case-control studies of KDSS and KD children up until April 30, 2021 were searched in multiple databases. The qualified research were retrieved by manually reviewing the references. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of male and female in children with KDSS. Children with KDSS compared with non-shocked KD, there were significant difference in age, duration of fever, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils (NEUT%), platelet count (PLT), c-reactive protein level (CRP), alanine transaminase concentration (ALT), aspartate transaminase concentration (AST), albumin concentration (ALB), sodium concentration (Na), ejection fraction, and length of hospitalization as well as the incidence of coronary artery dilation, coronary artery aneurysm, left ventricular dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, pericardial effusion, initial diagnosis of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and receiving second dose of IVIG, vasoactive drugs, hormones, and albumin. In contrast, there was no difference in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the incidence of conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal change, polymorphous rash, extremity change, and incomplete KD. Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that the children with KDSS had more severe indicators of inflammation and more cardiac abnormalities. These patients were resistant to immunoglobulin treatment and required extra anti-inflammatory treatment. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021241207.
Efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2021
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions. METHODS Forty patients who suffered from infertility with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) were enrolled in this prospective trial from October 2018 to December 2019. They were randomly divided into a PRF group and a control group. Both groups underwent transcervical resection of adhesions (TCRA) during the follicular phase. PRF group: PRF prepared from autologous venous blood was placed in the uterine cavity after TCRA and after the first menstrual re-fluid; control group: no PRF insertion. After the second menstrual re-fluid, both groups underwent hysteroscopy to reevaluate adhesion severity. Pregnancy rate, intrauterine adhesion score, menstrual volume and duration, and endometrial thickness were assessed and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS (1) PRF group pregnancy rate was significantly higher than the control group (55.0% vs. 20.0%). Mean follow-up time was (17.63 ± 2.33) months. All patients fell pregnant naturally. Four (PRF) and one (control) patients delivered live births without placental complications. (2) Intrauterine adhesion scores decreased compared with treatment-before. (3) In the pictorial blood loss assessment chart, score and menstrual duration during the 3rd menstrual cycle showed significant improvements for both groups. (4) Endometrial thickness also showed an increasing trend, and subendometrial bloodflow improved. (5) No treatment-related serious adverse events were noted. CONCLUSION Placing PRF into the uterine cavity of infertility patients with IUAs following TCRA is a safe and effective therapeutic method.
Clinical Application of Microsurgery Using the Cerebellar Medulla Fissure Approach in Severe Ventricular Hemorrhage with Casting of the Fourth Ventricle and Its Influence on Neurological Recovery
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:3699233
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical application of microsurgery using the cerebellar medulla fissure approach in severe ventricular hemorrhage with casting of the fourth ventricle and its effect on neurological recovery. METHODS A total of 80 patients with severe intraventricular hemorrhage accompanied by casting and dilation of the fourth ventricle who were admitted to the neurosurgery department between July 2019 and December 2020 were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 40 patients in each group. The drainage tube extubation time and length of hospital stay of the two groups were compared. The 3-day hematoma clearance of the two groups was observed. Postoperative consciousness was evaluated by GCS, and the patients' recovery was evaluated by GOS at three months. The activities of daily living (ADL) scores of the two groups were compared to evaluate patients' postoperative self-care ability. The incidence of postoperative complications in the two groups was collected. Independent risk factors for poor prognosis were analyzed by logistics regression. RESULTS The postoperative hospitalization time and the drainage tube extubation time in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The ratio of hematoma clearance ≥90% in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Postoperative GCS scores and GOS scores in the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The rate of postoperative complications in the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The rate of good ADL grading in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Age and surgical method were independent risk factors for poor prognosis. CONCLUSION Microsurgery using the cerebellar medulla fissure approach can effectively improve the condition of severe ventricular hemorrhage with casting of the fourth ventricle and promote the recovery of patients' neurological function.
The Effectiveness and Safety of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Chronic Wounds: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2021
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in individuals with lower-extremity diabetic ulcers, lower-extremity venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers. PATIENTS AND METHODS We searched multiple databases from database inception to June 11, 2020, for randomized controlled trials and observational studies that compared PRP to any other wound care without PRP in adults with lower-extremity diabetic ulcers, lower-extremity venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers. RESULTS We included 20 randomized controlled trials and five observational studies. Compared with management without PRP, PRP therapy significantly increased complete wound closure in lower-extremity diabetic ulcers (relative risk, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.32, moderate strength of evidence [SOE]), shortened time to complete wound closure, and reduced wound area and depth (low SOE). No significant changes were found in terms of wound infection, amputation, wound recurrence, or hospitalization. In patients with lower-extremity venous ulcers or pressure ulcers, the SOE was insufficient to estimate an effect on critical outcomes, such as complete wound closure or time to complete wound closure. There was no statistically significant difference in adverse events. CONCLUSION Autologous PRP may increase complete wound closure, shorten healing time, and reduce wound size in individuals with lower-extremity diabetic ulcers. The evidence is insufficient to estimate an effect on wound healing in individuals with lower-extremity venous ulcers or pressure ulcers. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42020172817.
Rigorous Assessment of Guidelines on COVID-19-Related Thrombotic or Thromboembolic Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice of Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:5513744
PURPOSE Severe COVID-19 patients were prone to develop venous thromboembolism. Unfortunately, to date, there is no evidence of any effective medications for thromboembolism in COVID-19. The management of the disease relies on symptomatic and supportive treatments, giving rise to a variety of guidelines. However, the quality of methodology and clinical recommendations remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, websites of international organizations and medical societies, and gray literature databases. Four well-trained appraisers independently evaluated the quality of eligible guidelines and extracted recommendations using well-recognized guideline appraisal tools. Furthermore, recommendations were extracted and reclassified according to a composite grading system. RESULTS The search identified 23 guidelines that offered 108 recommendations. Guidelines scored average on AGREE II criteria, with Scope and Purpose and Clarity of Presentation highest. Only five (22%) guidelines provided high-quality recommendations. The existed clinical recommendations were inconsistent in terms of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of thromboembolic disease to some extent. CONCLUSION Current guidelines for COVID-19 thromboembolism are generally of low quality, and clinical recommendations on thromboembolism are principally supported by insufficient evidence. There is still an urgent need for more well-designed clinical trials as evidence to prevent adverse events and improve prognosis during COVID-19 treatment.
Efficacy of human immunoglobulin injection and effects on serum inflammatory cytokines in neonates with acute lung injury
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2021;22(3):931
The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) injection in neonates with acute lung injury (ALI) and assess its effects on serum inflammatory cytokine levels. The research subjects were 140 neonates with ALI who were evenly distributed into a control group (COG) and a study group (STG). The COG patients were treated routinely, whereas patients in the STG were administered IVIG in addition to the standard treatment received by the COG. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO(2)), mechanical ventilation time and hospitalization time were compared between the two groups. ELISA was used to determine the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the patients before treatment and at 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival of the patients, including their survival for 30 days after treatment. The patients were divided into high and low cytokine expression groups based on their mean expression levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α before treatment. After treatment, PaO(2) and PaO(2)/FiO2 were significantly higher and mechanical ventilation and hospitalization time were reduced in the STG in comparison with the COG (all P<0.001). At 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment, serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the STG were lower than those in the COG (both P<0.05). The 30-day survival rate after treatment was not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). The 30-day survival rate in the high IL-6 and high TNF-α expression COG was lower than that in the low IL-6 and low TNF-α expression COG (both P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that IVIG may improve pulmonary gas exchange, shorten the course of disease and reduce the inflammatory response in neonates with ALI.
The efficacy of platelet rich plasma on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common musculoskeletal injury, most frequently affecting young and physically active patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely used in ACL reconstruction to augment the graft healing. However, high-level studies addressing its clinical efficacy could not reach a consensus. In this study, we assess the efficacy of PRP on pain relief, functional improvement along with radiological changes in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. We performed comprehensive literature search and included 17 RCTs containing 970 participants who underwent ACL reconstruction. The combined data showed significant difference between PRP and control with regard to VAS score (MD: -1.12, 95% CI -1.92, -0.31; P = .007), subjective IKDC score (MD: 6.08, 95% CI 4.39, 7.77; P < .00001) and Lysholm score (MD: 8.49, 95% CI 1.63, 15.36; P = .02) by postoperative 6 months, but only pain reduction was deemed clinically important. At the end of one year's follow-up, no clinically meaningful improvement in VAS (MD: -0.47, P = .04), subjective IKDC score (MD: 3.99, P = .03), Lysholm score (MD: 2.30, P = .32), objective IKDC score (RR: 1.03, P = .09) and knee joint laxity (MD: 0.17, P = .28) was seen. In terms of radiological findings, about one-third of the studies favored PRP to facilitate the graft healing, improve the harvest site morbidity and prevent tunnel widening. In summary, moderate quality of evidence suggested that PRP could provide short-term but not long-term clinically important pain reduction.