Fresh frozen plasma versus prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with intracranial haemorrhage related to vitamin K antagonists (INCH): a randomised trial
The Lancet. Neurology. 2016;15((6)):566-73.
BACKGROUND Haematoma expansion is a major cause of mortality in intracranial haemorrhage related to vitamin K antagonists (VKA-ICH). Normalisation of the international normalised ratio (INR) is recommended, but optimum haemostatic management is controversial. We assessed the safety and efficacy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) versus prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in patients with VKA-ICH. METHODS We did an investigator-initiated, multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Patients aged at least 18 years with VKA-ICH who presented within 12 h after symptom onset with an INR of at least 2.0 were randomly assigned (1:1) by numbered sealed envelopes to 20 mL/kg of intravenous FFP or 30 IU/kg of intravenous four-factor PCC within 1 h after initial cerebral CT scan. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with INR 1.2 or lower within 3 h of treatment initiation. Masking of treatment was not possible, but the primary analysis was observer masked. Analyses were done using a treated-as-randomised approach. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2008-005653-37, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00928915. FINDINGS Between Aug 7, 2009, and Jan 9, 2015, 54 patients were randomly assigned (26 to FFP and 28 to PCC) and 50 received study drug (23 FFP and 27 PCC). The trial was terminated on Feb 6, 2015, after inclusion of 50 patients after a safety analysis because of safety concerns. Two (9%) of 23 patients in the FFP group versus 18 (67%) of 27 in the PCC group reached the primary endpoint (adjusted odds ratio 30.6, 95% CI 4.7-197.9; p=0.0003). 13 patients died: eight (35%) of 23 in the FFP group (five from haematoma expansion, all occurring within 48 h after symptom onset) and five (19%) of 27 in the PCC group (none from haematoma expansion), the first of which occurred on day 5 after start of treatment. Three thromboembolic events occurred within 3 days (one in the FFP group and two in the PCC group), and six after day 12 (one and five). 43 serious adverse events (20 in the FFP group and 23 in the PCC group) occurred in 26 patients. Six serious adverse events were judged to be FFP related (four cases of haematoma expansion, one anaphylactic reaction, and one ischaemic stroke) and two PCC related (ischaemic stroke and pulmonary embolism). INTERPRETATION In patients with VKA-related intracranial hemorrhage, four-factor PCC might be superior to FFP with respect to normalising the INR, and faster INR normalisation seemed to be associated with smaller haematoma expansion. Although an effect of PCC on clinical outcomes remains to be shown, our data favour the use of PCC over FFP in intracranial haemorrhage related to VKA. FUNDING Octapharma.
International normalised ratio normalisation in patients with coumarin-related intracranial haemorrhages--the INCH trial: a randomised controlled multicentre trial to compare safety and preliminary efficacy of fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex--study design and protocol
International Journal of Stroke. 2011;6((3):):271-7.
BACKGROUND Intracerebral haemorrhage is the most feared complication in patients who are on treatment with vitamin K antagonists. Vitamin K antagonist related intracerebral haemorrhage occurs in about 10% of patients. Intracerebral haemorrhage has the worst prognosis of all subtypes of stroke including spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and a mortality rate of up to about 65%. The higher rate of haematoma expansion due to rebleeding is thought to be responsible for the higher mortality. Current international treatment recommendations include fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex concentrate. It is known that these substances lower the international normalised ratio, and thus it is assumed that normalisation of coagulopathy may lead to haemostasis and reduction of rebleeding. However, the issue of whether to use fresh frozen plasma or prothrombin complex concentrate for urgent reversal of vitamin K antagonists is unresolved: safety and efficacy of these treatments have never been studied in a randomised controlled trial. Our questions are: how effective are the two substances in normalisation of the international normalized ratio? How feasible is it to apply either of these treatments in an acute situation? What is the safety profile of each of these substances? Is there a difference in haematoma growth and clinical outcome? METHOD We designed a prospective, randomised, controlled multicentre trial to compare biological efficacy and safety of fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex concentrate in vitamin K antagonist related intracerebral haemorrhage. The study is observer-blinded for laboratory, neuroradiological, and clinical outcomes. Patients will be included if a computed tomography scan shows an intraparenchymal or subdural haematoma within 12 h after onset of symptoms, if the patient is on treatment with vitamin K antagonists, and the international normalized ratio is ‰¥2. Primary endpoint is the normalisation of the international normalized ratio (<=1·2) within three-hours after the start of antagonising therapy. Main exclusion criteria are secondary intracerebral haemorrhage, other known coagulopathies, and known acute ischaemic events. DISCUSSION We discuss the rationale of our trial on the basis of the current recommendations and specific aspects of trial design as, time window, choice of endpoints, dosing of fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex concentrate, monitoring and analysis of safety parameters, and rescue treatment. CONCLUSION This will be the first prospective trial comparing fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex concentrate in the indication of vitamin K antagonist related intracerebral hemorrhage. Recruitment of subjects started in August 2009. Until now, 19 patients have been included.
Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2009;40((12):):e647-56.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Numerous preclinical findings and a clinical pilot study suggest that recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) provides neuroprotection that may be beneficial for the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. Although EPO has been considered to be a safe and well-tolerated drug over 2 decades, recent studies have identified increased thromboembolic complications and/or mortality risks on EPO administration to patients with cancer or chronic kidney disease. Accordingly, the double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized German Multicenter EPO Stroke Trial (Phase II/III; ClinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT00604630) was designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of EPO in stroke. METHODS This clinical trial enrolled 522 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory (intent-to-treat population) with 460 patients treated as planned (per-protocol population). Within 6 hours of symptom onset, at 24 and 48 hours, EPO was infused intravenously (40,000 IU each). Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was allowed and stratified for. RESULTS Unexpectedly, a very high number of patients received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (63. 4%). On analysis of total intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations, neither primary outcome Barthel Index on Day 90 (P=0. 45) nor any of the other outcome parameters showed favorable effects of EPO. There was an overall death rate of 16. 4% (n=42 of 256) in the EPO and 9. 0% (n=24 of 266) in the placebo group (OR, 1. 98; 95% CI, 1. 16 to 3. 38; P=0. 01) without any particular mechanism of death unexpected after stroke. CONCLUSIONS Based on analysis of total intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations only, this is a negative trial that also raises safety concerns, particularly in patients receiving systemic thrombolysis.