Immunoadsorption and plasma exchange-Efficient treatment options for neurological autoimmune diseases
Journal of clinical apheresis. 2021
BACKGROUND Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and immunoadsorption (IA) are first or second line treatment options in patients with neurological autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMSOD), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome), and autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS In this prospective randomized controlled monocentric study, we assessed safety and efficacy of therapy with IA or TPE in patients with neurological autoimmune diseases. Treatment response was assessed using various neurological scores as well by measuring immunoglobulin and cytokine concentrations. Clinical outcome was evaluated by application of specific scores for the underlying diseases. RESULTS A total of 32 patients were analyzed. Among these, 19 patients were treated with TPE and 13 patients with IA. IA and TPE therapy showed a comparable significant treatment response. In patients with MS and NMOSD, mean EDSS before and after treatment showed a significant reduction after treatment with IA. We observed a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, lL-17, IL-6, INF-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha during IA treatment, whereas this reduction was not seen in patients treated with TPE. CONCLUSIONS In summary, both IA and TPE were effective and safe procedures for treating neurological autoimmune diseases. However, there was a trend towards longer therapy response in patients treated with IA compared to TPE, possibly related to a reduction in plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen only in the IA-treated group.
Erythropoietin treatment in chemotherapy-induced anemia in previously untreated advanced esophagogastric cancer patients
International Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014;19((2):):288-96.
BACKGROUND The impact of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chemotherapy-induced anemia has been a constant topic of debate over recent years. We prospectively assessed the efficacy of epoetin beta (Epo-b) in improving hemoglobin (Hb) levels and outcome in patients within an open label, randomized clinical phase II trial with advanced or metastatic gastric/esophagogastric cancer. METHODS Previously untreated patients were randomized to receive 3-weekly cycles of capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2) bid) for 14 days plus on day 1 either irinotecan 250 mg/m(2) or cisplatin 80 mg/m(2). Epo-b (30000 IU once weekly) was initiated in patients with Hb <11 g/dl and continued until Hb >12 g/dl was reached. If after 4 weeks the Hb increase was <0.5 g/dl, Epo-b was increased to 30000 IU, twice weekly. RESULTS Of 118 patients enrolled, 32 received Epo-b treatment; of these, 65 % achieved an increase in Hb levels of at least 2 g/dl, with 74 % achieving the target Hb of >12 g/dl. Within the study population, patients receiving Epo-b showed better overall survival (median 14.5 vs. 8.0 months, P = 0.056) as well as a significantly improved disease control rate (78 vs. 55 %, P = 0.025). Patients in the irinotecan group profited significantly (P < 0.05) in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival under Epo-b treatment (median 6.5 vs 4.1 months and median 15.4 vs 8.4 months, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Epo-b was effective in raising Hb levels in patients with advanced esophagogastric cancer. Patients receiving Epo-b had a significantly increased response to chemotherapy and a clear trend to improved survival.