Why does a point of care guided transfusion algorithm not improve blood loss and transfusion practice in patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery? A prospective randomized controlled pilot study
BMC anesthesiology. 2019;19(1):24
BACKGROUND Adult cardiac surgery is often complicated by elevated blood losses that account for elevated transfusion requirements. Perioperative bleeding and transfusion of blood products are major risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnostic and goal-directed therapies aim at the reduction of bleeding and need for allogeneic transfusions. METHODS Single-centre, prospective, randomized trial assessing blood loss and transfusion requirements of 26 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery at high risk for perioperative bleeding. Primary endpoint was blood loss at 24 h postoperatively. Random assignment to intra- and postoperative haemostatic management following either an algorithm based on conventional coagulation assays (conventional group: platelet count, aPTT, PT, fibrinogen) or based on point-of-care (PoC-group) monitoring, i.e. activated rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(R)) combined with multiple aggregometry (Multiplate(R)). Differences between groups were analysed using nonparametric tests for independent samples. RESULTS The study was terminated after interim analysis (n = 26). Chest tube drainage volume was 360 ml (IQR 229-599 ml) in the conventional group, and 380 ml (IQR 310-590 ml) in the PoC-group (p = 0.767) after 24 h. Basic patient characteristics, results of PoC coagulation assays, and transfusion requirements of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma did not differ between groups. Coagulation results were comparable. Platelets were transfused in the PoC group only. CONCLUSION Blood loss via chest tube drainage and transfusion amounts were not different comparing PoC- and central lab-driven transfusion algorithms in subjects that underwent high-risk cardiac surgery. Routine PoC coagulation diagnostics do not seem to be beneficial when actual blood loss is low. High risk procedures might not suffice as a sole risk factor for increased blood loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT01402739 , Date of registration July 26, 2011.
Recombinant activated factor VIIa for the treatment of bleeding in major abdominal surgery including vascular and urological surgery: a review and meta-analysis of published data
Critical Care. 2008;12((1):):R14.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in abdominal, vascular, and urological surgery. METHODS We conducted meta-analyses of case series and placebo-controlled studies reporting on the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding with rFVIIa regarding 'reduction or cessation of bleeding', 'mortality', and 'thromboembolism'. RESULTS All case reports (n = 15 case reports and 17 patients) documented an effect of rFVIIa in the treatment of bleeding. A meta-analysis of 10 case series revealed a reduction or cessation of bleeding in 39 out of 50 patients after administration of rFVIIa (estimated mean effect 73.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 51.0% to 95.4%) and a mean probability of survival of 53.0% (95% CI 26.4% to 79.7%). Among the rFVIIa responders, 19 out of 29 patients (66%) survived versus 1 out of 10 rFVIIa nonresponders (P = 0.003). Six out of 36 patients from the case series had a thromboembolic complication (estimated mean probability 16.5%, 95% CI 1.2% to 31.8%). Compared with a meta-analysis of eight placebo-controlled studies, no increased risk of thromboembolism was seen after administration of rFVIIa. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of case series showed that, in a mean of 73% patients, rFVIIa achieved at least a reduction of bleeding and that the probability of survival is increased in patients responding to rFVIIa. rFVIIa was not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism compared with placebo.
Immunohistological changes in dilated cardiomyopathy induced by immunoadsorption therapy and subsequent immunoglobulin substitution
BACKGROUND Immunoadsorption (IA) and subsequent immunoglobulin (Ig) G substitution represent an additional therapeutic approach in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It remains to be elucidated whether this treatment modulates myocardial inflammation, which is possibly a causal factor of ventricular dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS From 25 DCM patients (EF <30%), 12 patients were randomized for IA therapy and subsequent IgG substitution at 1-month intervals until month 3. Before (<7 days) and after IA therapy, right ventricular biopsies were obtained from all patients. Biopsies were also obtained at intervals of 3 months from 13 patients without IA/IgG treatment (controls). IA/IgG treatment induced improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction from 21.3+/-1.7% (+/-SEM) to 27.0+/-1.3% (P<0.01 versus baseline/controls) and reduction of the beta-receptor autoantibody serum levels (P<0.01 versus baseline/controls). The number of CD3 cells decreased from 5.7+/-0.8 to 2.9+/-0.5 cells/mm(2) (P<0.01 versus baseline/controls). This decline was paralleled by a decrease in CD4 (P<0.01 versus baseline/controls) and CD8 (P<0.05 versus baseline/controls) lymphocytes. The number of leukocyte common antigen-positive cells (leukocytes) was reduced from 20.0+/-3.2 to 9.9+/-2.8 cells/mm(2) (P<0.01 versus baseline/P<0.05 versus controls). HLA class II expression decreased from 2.1+/-0.7% to 1.1+/-0.4% (P<0.05 versus controls/baseline). The number of immunopositive cells and the expression of HLA class II in controls remained stable. In both groups, the degree of fibrosis remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS IA and subsequent IgG substitution mitigate myocardial inflammation in DCM.
Hemodynamic effects of immunoadsorption and subsequent immunoglobulin substitution in dilated cardiomyopathy: three-month results from a randomized study
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2000;35((6):):1590-8.
OBJECTIVES The objective of our study was to assess the hemodynamic effects of immunoadsorption (IA) and subsequent immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution in comparison with the effects of conventional medical treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND Various circulating cardiac autoantibodies have been detected among patients suffering from DCM. These antibodies are extractable by IA. METHODS Patients with DCM (n = 18, New York Heart Association III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction <30%) and who were on stable medication participated in the study. Hemodynamic measurements were performed using a Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter. The patients were randomly assigned either to the treatment group with IA and subsequent IgG substitution (IA/IgG group, n = 9) or to the control group without IA/IgG (n = 9). In the IA/IgG group, the patients were initially treated in one IA session daily on three consecutive days. After the final IA session, 0.5 g/kg of polyclonal IgG was substituted. At one-month intervals, IA was then repeated for three further courses with one IA session daily on two consecutive days, until the third month. RESULTS After the first IA course and IgG substitution, cardiac index (CI) increased from 2.1 (+/-0.1) to 2.8 (+/-0.1) L/min/m2 (p < 0.01) and stroke volume index (SVI) increased from 27.8 (+/-2.3) to 36.2 (+/-2.5) ml/m2 (p < 0.01). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased from 1,428 (+/-74) to 997 (+/-55) dyne x s x cm(-5) (p < 0.01). The improvement in CI, SVI and SVR persisted after three months. In contrast, hemodynamics did not change throughout the three months in the control group. CONCLUSIONS Immunoadsorption and subsequent IgG substitution improves cardiovascular function in DCM.