Economic Burden and Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Current Treatments for Anaemia in Patients with CKD not on Dialysis: A Systematic Review
PharmacoEconomics - open. 2019
BACKGROUND The cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden associated with treatments for anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well characterized among non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) patients. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to review the literature on costs and HRQoL associated with current treatments for anaemia of CKD among NDD patients. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, NHS EED, and NHS HTA databases were searched for original studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 17 March 2017. The following inclusion criteria were applied: adult population; primary focus was anaemia of CKD; patients received iron supplementation, red blood cell transfusion, or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs); and reported results on HRQoL and/or costs. Studies that included NDD patients, did not compare different treatments, and had relevant designs were retained. HRQoL and cost outcomes were summarized in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria: six randomized controlled trials, four prospective single-arm trials, three retrospective studies, one prospective observational study, one simulation study, and one cross-sectional survey. All included ESAs. Treatment of anaemia (compared with no treatment) was associated with HRQoL improvements in five of six studies and lower costs in four of four studies. Treatment aiming for higher haemoglobin targets (compared with lower targets) resulted in modest HRQoL improvements, higher healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and higher costs. CONCLUSIONS In NDD patients, untreated anaemia of CKD leads to higher costs, higher HRU, and lower HRQoL compared with initiating anaemia treatment. Relative to aiming for lower haemoglobin targets with ESAs, higher targets conferred modest HRQoL improvements and were associated with higher HRU.
Mortality risk of darbepoetin alfa versus epoetin alfa in patients with CKD: systematic review and meta-analysis
American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2015;66((1)):69-74.
BACKGROUND Epoetin alfa (EPO) and darbepoetin alfa (DPO) are erythropoiesis-stimulating agents that are widely and interchangeably used for the treatment of anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. No study has specifically compared the risks of hard study outcomes between EPO and DPO, including mortality. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION Patients enrolled in randomized trials comparing EPO versus DPO for the treatment of anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease, including those requiring dialysis. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES We conducted a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE, all years) and industry resources, using predefined search terms and data abstraction tools. We then summarized key characteristics and findings of these trials and performed a random-effects meta-analysis of trials with at least 3 months' duration to identify the summary OR of mortality between patients randomly assigned to DPO versus EPO. INTERVENTION DPO versus EPO. OUTCOME All-cause mortality. RESULTS We identified 9 trials that met the stated inclusion criteria. Overall, 2,024 patients were included in the meta-analysis, of whom 126 died during follow-up, which ranged from 20 to 52 weeks. We found no significant difference in mortality between patients randomly assigned to DPO versus EPO (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.88-2.01). No treatment heterogeneity across studies was detected (Q statistic=4.60; P=0.8). LIMITATIONS Generalizability to nontrial populations is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS Few trials directly comparing DPO and EPO have been conducted and follow-up was limited. In aggregate, no effect of specific erythropoiesis-stimulating agent on mortality was identified, but the confidence limits were wide and remained compatible with considerable harm from DPO. Absent adequately powered randomized trials, observational postmarketing comparative effectiveness studies comparing these erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are required to better characterize the long-term safety profiles of these agents.Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.