A randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled study of granulocyte/monocyte apheresis for moderate to severe Crohn's disease
OBJECTIVES Activated granulocytes and monocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In small, uncontrolled studies, granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMA) has shown promise in treating CD. We conducted a randomised, double-blind study to compare GMA with a sham procedure in patients with moderate to severe CD. DESIGN Patients with active CD as defined by a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) of 220-450 were randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with GMA using the Adacolumn Apheresis System (JIMRO, Takasaki, Japan) or sham apheresis. Ten apheresis sessions were scheduled over a 9-week period, and efficacy was evaluated at week 12. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving clinical remission (CDAI score =150 without use of prohibited drugs). RESULTS Clinical remission was achieved by 17.8% of patients in the GMA group (n=157) compared with 19.2% of those in the sham control group (n=78) (absolute difference -1.4% (95% CI-12.8% to 8.5%), p=0.858). Clinical response (defined as a =100-point decrease in CDAI) was achieved by 28.0% and 26.9% of patients in the GMA and sham groups, respectively (p=1.000). The two treatments produced similar changes from baseline in CDAI and quality of life, as well as in disease severity assessed endoscopically. The incidence and types of adverse events did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS GMA was well tolerated, but this study did not demonstrate its effectiveness over a sham procedure in inducing clinical remission or response in patients with moderate to severe CD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00162942.
Comparison of subcutaneous and intravenous recombinant human erythropoietin for anemia in hemodialysis patients with significant comorbid disease
American Journal of Nephrology. 1992;12((5):):303-10.
While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is an effective therapy for anemia in renal failure, most published studies concern benefits in relatively healthy hemodialysis patients. The present study compares intravenous and subcutaneous administration of rHuEPO in an unselected group of 128 hemodialysis patients who were randomized to receive rHuEPO in an initial dose of 150 U/kg/week in three divided doses by subcutaneous or intravenous injection. Following a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients received rHuEPO until their hemoglobin was stable between 105 and 125 g/l for 4 weeks and then followed for a further 24 weeks. Eighty-three patients completed the study, 45 in the subcutaneous and 38 in the intravenous group. There was no difference in mean hemoglobin at any stage between subcutaneous and intravenous patients. Mean rHuEPO dose at the time of stabilization was significantly lower in the subcutaneous group compared to the intravenous (205.9 +/- 135.4 vs. 274.1 +/- 142.4 U/kg/week; p = 0.019), mean time to hemoglobin target was 9.9 +/- 4.5 weeks for the subcutaneous group and 11.9 +/- 4.9 weeks for the intravenous group (p = 0.037). Time to stabilization was 14.9 +/- 4.7 weeks for the subcutaneous compared to 17.3 +/- 3.9 weeks for the intravenous group (p = 0.006). Diabetic patients had higher dose requirements for rHuEPO at all time points and required a longer time to reach stabilization than nondiabetics (18.6 +/- 4.6 vs. 15.6 +/- 4.3 weeks; p = 0.016). Quality of life estimated by a disease-specific Kidney Disease Questionnaire improved significantly during rHuEPO therapy in both groups. There was no significant change in dialysis prescription throughout the study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Erythropoietin for anaemia in haemodialysis patients: results of a maintenance study (the Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group)
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 1992;7((8):):811-6.
Most published studies of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) have been of limited duration and in small patient populations. The present study examines the long-term effects of rHuEpo in 98 haemodialysis patients treated for up to 18 months. All patients had completed a 6 month placebo-controlled study of rHuEpo. Patients previously on placebo (group 1; n = 31) received rHuEpo at an initial dose of 50 U/kg thrice weekly with subsequent dose adjustments to maintain haemoglobin (Hb) in the range 105-120 g/l. Patients previously on rHuEpo (group 2; n = 67) continued on their usual dose with adjustments made to maintain Hb at 105-120 g/l. Haematological parameters were measured every 2 weeks. Quality of life, assessed by a disease-specific kidney disease questionnaire (KDQ), was measured every 6 months. Mean Hb in group 1 increased from 74.2 +/- 11.4 g/l at baseline to 112.9 +/- 12.6 g/l after 12 months of rHuEpo therapy. After 12 weeks of rHuEpo therapy Hb in groups 1 and 2 was indistinguishable. Hb remained constant in both groups throughout the period of follow-up. Mean rHuEpo dose requirements were similar in both groups. At the end of the study the mean intravenous rHuEpo dose in group 1 patients was 176.6 +/- 154.4 and in group 2 patients was 210.0 +/- 144.0 U/kg per week. Access failure was increased during rHuEpo therapy in patients with synthetic grafts (46% versus 7% failures compared to fistulae; P less than 0.001). Group 1 patients receiving rHuEpo had a significant increase in diastolic but not systolic blood pressure despite a 32% increase in overall antihypertensive prescriptions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The use of generic and specific quality-of-life measures in hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin. The Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group
Controlled Clinical Trials. 1991;12((4, Suppl):):168S-179S.
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on the quality of life and exercise capacity of 118 hemodialysis patients was assessed in a randomized, double-masked placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized into three groups: 1) placebo, 2) EPO to achieve a hemoglobin of 95-110 g/L and 3) EPO to achieve a hemoglobin of 115-130 g/L. Patients were followed for six months. Quality of life was assessed using a disease-specific measure [the Kidney Disease Questionnaire (KDQ)] and two generic measures [Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Time Trade OFF (TTO)]. The KDQ contains five dimensions. Functional capacity was assessed with a Six-Minute Walk test (SMW) and an Exercise Stress Test (EST). The mean hemoglobin at six months was 74, 102, and 117 gm/l in groups one, two and three, respectively. There was a marked improvement in quality of life with EPO therapy, but no difference between groups 2 and 3. The outcome measure that was the most responsive to change was the KDQ (P less than .001 for the fatigue and physical symptoms dimensions). The aggregate global (P less than .02) and physical (P = .005) scores of the SIP improved with EPO therapy, the psychosocial score did not. There was no improvement in the TTO. There was an improvement in the EST (P = .02) but not in the SMW. The reproducibility of the outcome measures in placebo-treated patients varied between 0.80 and 0.98 (intra-class correlation coefficient). The correlation among the outcome measures at six months was statistically significant in most cases, as was the correlation of change scores between baseline and six months.