The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in lumbar surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials
Joint diseases and related surgery. 2022;33(1):57-85
OBJECTIVES This meta-analysis aims to assess tranexamic acid (TXA) effectiveness and safety in lumbar surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Renewals of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted utilizing databases of medical literature such as PubMed, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and EMBASE to compare principal and safety endpoints. The risk ratio (RR), standard mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. For the evaluation of the quality of the included studies, the Cochrane risk of bias criteria were utilized by two authors. RESULTS In total, 49 articles were enrolled that included 4,822 patients. Of the patients, 2,653 were administered TXA and 2,169 were in the control group. The findings indicated that TXA was capable of significantly lowering postoperative blood loss (PBL), transfusion rate, transfusion volume, total blood loss (TBL), intraoperative blood loss (IBL), and drainage compared to the control group. Besides, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values were higher in the TXA group compared to the control group. As the safety endpoints, TXA significantly reduced D-dimer levels compared to the control group; however, both TXA and control groups had no significant variations in deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Subgroup analysis was administrated according to the administration method of TXA and the operation type and intravenous and topical TXA were combined in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis showed that TXA had the potential to significantly lower PBL, transfusion rate, transfusion volume, TBL, IBL, and drainage compared to the control group. Besides, Hb and Hct values were higher in the TXA group compared to the control group. Its hemostatic potential after lumbar spine surgery is trustworthy. It is still controversial in safety endpoints that TXA can significantly reduce D-dimer compared to the control group, without no significant variations in DVT in both the TXA and control groups.
Patients undergoing lumbar surgery (49 studies, n= 4,822).
Tranexamic acid (TXA), (n= 2,653).
Normal saline (n= 2,169).
TXA significantly lowered postoperative blood loss, transfusion rate, transfusion volume, total blood loss, intraoperative blood loss, and drainage compared to the control group. Haemoglobin and haematocrit values were higher in the TXA group compared to the control group. As the safety endpoints, TXA significantly reduced D-dimer levels compared to the control group; however, both TXA and control groups had no significant variations in deep venous thrombosis.
Anticoagulation treatment for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its clinical effectiveness in 2020: A meta-analysis study
BACKGROUND To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with effective anticoagulant treatment strategies for coronavirus disease 2019 patients. METHODS We searched Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCIEXPANDED, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI (Chinese Database), WanFang (Chinese Database), CBM (Chinese Database), VIP (Chinese Database) for studies published from November 1, 2019 to October 1, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot. RESULTS Fourteen studies involving 7681 patients were included. We meta-analyzed the bleeding, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism risk between no anticoagulation and prophylactic anticoagulation, and found no significant difference. The same trend occurred in the comparison between with and without anticoagulation. However, when compared with no anticoagulation, both prophylactic anticoagulation (odd ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.93) and therapeutic anticoagulation (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.80-1.05) had lower risk of mortality. Furthermore, the risk of overall bleeding among patients with therapeutic anticoagulation was 3.11 times (95% CI: 2.29-4.24) than that of patients with prophylactic anticoagulation. On the contrary, therapeutic anticoagulation had lower risk of deep vein thrombosis than prophylactic anticoagulation (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19-0.63). CONCLUSIONS Among coronavirus disease 2019 patients, preventive and therapeutic anticoagulation were more beneficial than no anticoagulation for reducing mortality rate. The result will inform healthcare providers and public health policy makers in efforts to treat and control the current outbreak.
Norepinephrine vs vasopressin: which vasopressor should be discontinued first in septic shock? a meta-analysis
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 2019
BACKGROUND Patients with septic shock in whom Norepinephrine (NE) infusion alone is insufficient to raise blood pressure require the concomitant administration of Vasopressin (VP). However, current guidelines do not advise clinicians as to which vasoactive agent to discontinue first once the patient's septic shock begins to resolve. Moreover, there is controversial data guiding clinicians on how to discontinue vasopressors for septic shock patients who are receiving a combination therapy of NE and VP. METHODS The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register databases were searched from the database inception until October 18, 2018. Studies were limited to adult patients with septic shock who received concomitant NE and VP treatment, that included different orders of vasopressor discontinuation. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension. Overall mortality, ICU mortality and length of stay in the ICU (LOS) were secondary outcomes. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses, as well as trial sequential analysis (TSA), were performed. RESULTS One prospective randomized controlled trial and seven retrospective cohort studies were included in present meta-analysis. Compared with discontinuing VP first, the incidence of hypotension was significantly lower when NE was discontinued first (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.86, P = 0.02; I = 91%). No significant difference was detected in either overall mortality (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.10, P = 0.34) or ICU mortality (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34, P = 0.96) between these two groups. Furthermore, ICU length of stay (LOS) was also evaluated in five studies, and no statistical significance was observed between the two groups with different orders in weaning vasopressors (mean difference, 1.35, 95% CI -2.05 to 4.74, P = 0.44). The subgroup analyses suggested a significant association between hypotension and the practice of discontinuing VP first specifically in patients with a low usage rate of corticosteroids (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78, P = 0.02). The TSA indicated a lack of sufficient evidence to draw conclusions from the current results (RIS = 11,821). CONCLUSIONS In adults with septic shock treated with concomitant VP and NE therapy, discontinuing VP first may lead to a higher incidence of hypotension but is not associated with mortality or ICU LOS. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.
Perioperative combined administration of tranexamic acid and dexamethasone in total knee arthroplasty-benefit versus harm?
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits and harm of combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and dexamethasone (Dexa) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS A total of 88 consecutive patients undergoing TKA for knee osteoarthritis were stratified in 2 groups. All surgeries were performed under general anesthesia. Brief, patients in the TXA + Dexa group (n = 45) received 10 mg Dexa just after the anesthesia, and repeated at 24 hours after the surgery; and patients in the TXA group (n = 43) received 2 ml of normal saline solution at the same time. The measured outcomes were the C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from preoperatively to postoperatively, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), fatigue, range of motion (ROM), length of stay (LOS), and the analgesic and antiemetic rescue consumption RESULTS The level of CRP and IL-6 in the TXA + Dexa group were lower than that in the TXA group at 24 hours (P < .001, P < .001), 48 hours (P < .001, P < .001), and 72 hours (P < .001, P < .001) after the surgery. The pain scores in the TXA + Dexa group were lower during walking at 24 hours (P < .001), 48 hours (P < .001), and 72 hours (P < .001) and at rest at 24 hours (P = .022) after the surgery. Patients in the TXA + Dexa group had a lower nausea score, the incidence of PONV, fatigue, and the analgesic and antiemetic rescue consumption, and had a greater ROM than that in the TXA group. No significant differences were found in LOS and complications. CONCLUSION The combined administration of TXA + Dexa significantly reduced the level of postoperative CRP and IL-6, relieve postoperative pain, ameliorate the incidence of POVN, provide additional analgesic and antiemetic effects, reduce postoperative fatigue, and improve ROM, without increasing the risk of complications in primary TKA.
Comprehensive assessment of tranexamic acid during orthognathic surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2019
The objective of this study was to comprehensively assess the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) during orthognathic surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials addressing these issues were carried out. Three electronic databases, included PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, were searched until April 30, 2018. Eligible studies were restricted to randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Weighted mean differences (WMD) for blood loss, operation time, haematocrit, quality of surgical field, and odds ratio (OR) for transfusion rates were pooled for the included studies. Eight randomized, controlled trials were included for analysis. Compared with the control group, the TXA group showed a reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 165.03 ml (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -200.93 to -129.13 ml), a reduction in the drop of haematocrit of 2.32 g/dl (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -3.38 to -1.26 g/dl), and an improved quality of surgical field (p < 0.00001; MD, -1.01; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.80). Tranexamic acid has a limited effect on reducing operative time (p < 0.00001; MD, -16.18 min; 95% CI, -19.60 to -12.75 min) and on decreasing the transfusion rates (p = 0.02; OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83).
The efficacy and safety of anti-fibrinolytic agents in blood management following peri-acetabular osteotomy: A meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Blood management after peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) has become a serious problem. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytics for blood management after PAO. METHODS PubMed, OVID, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science were searched up to January, 2018 without restrictions on publication date and language. We also searched the relevant publication sources. The research was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs were included in our study. Weighted mean differences, risk difference, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We assessed statistical heterogeneity for each outcome with the use of a standard chi-square test and I statistic. The data were extracted by 2 of the co-authors independently and were analyzed by RevMan5.3. Primary outcomes were total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates. Secondary outcomes were length of a hospital stay and postoperative complications. RESULTS Four studies including 1 RCT and 3 non-RCTs were included in our study. The present meta-analysis indicated that antifibrinolytics was associated with a significant reduction of the total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, and length of a hospital stay compared with control groups. No significant differences were identified in terms of the incidence of postoperative complications. CONCLUSION Intravenous antifibrinolytics was efficacious in reduction of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and length of a hospital stay after PAO without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications. More high-quality RCTs with long follow-up period were necessary for proper comparisons of the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytics with placebo.
Efficacy of a four-hour drainage clamping technique in the reduction of blood loss following total hip arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study
Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. 2017;23:2708-2714.
BACKGROUND During total hip arthroplasty (THA) drainage is used by most surgeons. However, the optimal drainage strategy remains controversial. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a four-hour drainage clamping technique in patients undergoing THA. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 64 patients who underwent THA from March 2012 to December 2015 who were enrolled in the study; 32 patients were randomly assigned to four hours of a drainage clamping technique (clamping group); 32 patients were treated with a non-clamping drainage technique (non-clamping group). All perioperative clinical details were recorded for comparative analysis. RESULTS The postoperative drainage volume and calculated blood loss were significantly greater in the drainage non-clamping group, p<0.001 and p=0.028, respectively. Significantly more patients in the drainage non-clamping group required a blood transfusion, seven cases versus one case (p=0.023). Significantly more units of blood were transfused in the drainage non-clamping group (p=0.001). No significant differences were found for all other clinical outcome factors. CONCLUSIONS The four-hour drainage clamping technique following THA, compared with drainage non-clamping technique reduced blood loss and requirement for blood transfusion. There was no increase in adverse clinical events using the four-hour drainage clamping method. Therefore, four-hour drainage clamping has the potential for routine use in THA.
Tissue adhesives in gastrointestinal anastomosis: a systematic review
Journal of Surgical Research. 2013;180((2):):290-300.
BACKGROUND Anastomotic leakage in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery remains a major problem. Although numerous studies have been undertaken on the role of tissue adhesives as GI anastomotic sealants, no clear overview has been presented. This systematic review aims to provide a clear overview of recent experimental and clinical research on the sealing of different levels of GI anastomosis with tissue adhesives. METHODS We searched MEDLINE and Embase databases for clinical and experimental articles published after 2000. We included articles only if these addressed a tissue adhesive applied around a GI anastomosis to prevent anastomotic leakage or decrease leakage-related complications. We categorized results according to level of anastomosis, category of tissue adhesive, and level of evidence. RESULTS We included 48 studies: three on esophageal anastomosis, 13 on gastric anastomosis, four on pancreatic anastomosis, eight on small intestinal anastomosis, and 20 on colorectal anastomosis; 15 of the studies were on humans. CONCLUSIONS Research on ileal and gastric/bariatric anastomosis reveals promising results for fibrin glue sealing for specific clinical indications. Sealing of pancreatico-enteric anastomosis does not seem to be useful for high-risk patients; however, research in this field is limited. Ileal anastomotic sealing was promising in every included study, and calls for clinical evaluation. For colorectal anastomoses, sealing with fibrin glue sealing seems to have more positive results than with cyanoacrylate. Further research should concentrate on the clinical evaluation of promising experimental results as well as on new types of tissue adhesives. This research field would benefit from a systematic experimental approach with comparable methodology. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.