A Clinical Study of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Combined With Autologous High-Density Fat Transplantation in Augmentation Rhinoplasty
Ear, nose, & throat journal. 2021;:1455613211016902
OBJECTIVE This study was designed to analyze the clinical effect of autologous fat-granule transplantation in augmentation rhinoplasty and explore methods to improve the fat retention rate. METHODS A total of 70 enrolled patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combined with high-density fat transplantation group (combined group) and the conventional fat-granule transplantation group (control group; n = 35 in each group). In the combined group, an appropriate amount of autologous fat was extracted and centrifuged, and the lower layer of high-density fat was taken and mixed with PRF isolated from whole blood for autotransplantation. In the control group, only fat was extracted and centrifuged for transplantation. The patients were followed up with for more than one year to observe the short- and long-term effects, complications, safety, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS Six months after the operation, the nasal shape was stable, the contour was higher and more stereoscopic than before, the average increase of nasal height was 3.0 mm in the combined group and 2.0 mm in the control group. No complications, such as fat embolism, infection, or necrosis occurred during the 1-year follow-up. The satisfaction rate between the 2 groups has statistical significance (P < .05). CONCLUSION Overall, PRF combined with autologous high-density fat transplantation is simple to perform, has a significantly increased fat-retention rate than the control group, and has stable long-term effects without obvious adverse reactions. A sufficient amount of fat and PRF transplantation can achieve a good orthopedic effect. Thus, this method can be widely used in clinical augmentation rhinoplasty.
Timing of plasma exchange for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2020;48:102709
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are autoimmune astrocytopathies with predominant involvement of the optic nerves and spinal cord. The current management is high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by apheresis therapy if it fails. We aimed to investigate plasma exchange (PE) benefits in corticosteroid-refractory NMOSDs. METHODS From Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Clinical Trials, we identified PE-based studies published between Jan 2007 and Dec 2019. We pooled the information of these studies in a binomial meta-analysis. We investigated the factors affecting the efficacy of PE and its adverse events. The effectiveness of PE was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The timing of PE initiation was assessed using Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS We included 561 records and identified 8 observational studies, including 228 NMOSD patients. The mean time to the initiation of PE was 11 days, and the average volume of each exchange was 1.5-2 L. PE treatment reduced the mean EDSS score by -1.04 (95% CI, -1.44 to -0.64). The initiation time of PE significantly affected the outcome (EDSS reduction) (P = 0.01; 95% CI, -1.30 to 0.28). In the ≤ 7-day and 8-23-day groups, the mean EDSS decreased by 0.64 (95% CI, -0.93 to -0.34) and 1.41 (95% CI, -1.79 to -1.02), respectively. In addition, PE showed the same efficacy for alleviating the symptoms of NMOSDs, regardless of the day between 8 to 23 days on which it was performed (P = 0.29). Thirty-five (20.8%) of the 168 patients had adverse events. CONCLUSION PE can ameliorate severe NMOSDs. PE effectiveness was associated with the duration between disease and the initiation of PE, and the optimal timing for PE initiation is 8 to 23 days after the onset of the disease.
Efficacy and safety of convalescent plasma for severe COVID-19 based on evidence in other severe respiratory viral infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis
CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'association Medicale Canadienne. 2020
BACKGROUND The safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain uncertain. To support a guideline on COVID-19 management, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 and other severe respiratory viral infections. METHODS In March 2020, we searched international and Chinese biomedical literature databases, clinical trial registries and prepublication sources for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies comparing patients receiving and not receiving convalescent plasma. We included patients with acute coronavirus, influenza and Ebola virus infections. We conducted a meta-analysis using random-effects models and assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS Of 1099 unique records, 6 studies were eligible, and none of these included patients with COVID-19. One nonrandomized study (n = 40) on convalescent plasma in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) provided uninformative results regarding mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] CI 0.01 to 1.70). Pooled estimates from 4 RCTs on influenza (n = 572) showed no convincing effects on deaths (4 RCTs, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.81), complete recovery (2 RCTs, odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.64) or length of stay (3 RCTs, mean difference -1.62, 95% CI -3.82 to 0.58, d). The quality of evidence was very low for all efficacy outcomes. Convalescent plasma caused few or no serious adverse events in influenza RCTs (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.29, low-quality evidence). INTERPRETATION Studies of non- COVID-19 severe respiratory viral infections provide indirect, very low-quality evidence that raises the possibility that convalescent plasma has minimal or no benefit in the treatment of COVID-19 and low-quality evidence that it does not cause serious adverse events.
Red blood cell transfusion threshold after pediatric cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy is implemented to minimize risk following allogeneic blood transfusion in adult cardiac surgery. However, it is still unclear if it can be applied to pediatric cardiac patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of postoperative restrictive transfusion thresholds on clinical outcomes based on up-to-date results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHOD We searched for RCTs and observational studies in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov from their inception to October 26, 2017. We also searched reference lists of published guidelines, reviews, and relevant articles, as well as conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied and no observational study met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS Four RCTs on cardiac surgery involving 454 patients were included. There were no differences in the pooled fixed effects of intensive care unit (ICU) stay between the liberal and restrictive transfusion thresholds (standardized mean difference SMD, 0.007; 95% confidence interval CI, -0.18-0.19; P = .94). There were also no differences in the length of hospital stay (SMD, -0.062; 95% CI, -0.28-0.15; P = .57), ventilation duration (SMD, -0.015; 95% CI, -0.25-0.22; P = .90), mean arterial lactate level (SMD, 0.071; 95% CI, -0.22-0.36; P = .63), and mortality (risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.13-1.94; P = .31). There was no inter-trial heterogeneity for any pooled analysis. Publication bias was tested using Egger, Begg, or the trim-and-fill test, and the results indicated no significant publication bias. CONCLUSION Evidence from RCTs in pediatric cardiac surgery, though limited, showed non-inferiority of restrictive thresholds over liberal thresholds in length of ICU stay and other outcomes following red blood cell transfusion. Further high-quality RCTs are necessary to confirm the findings.
Clinical effects of applying a tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty on blood loss
Chinese Medical Journal. 2010;123((21):):3030-3.
BACKGROUND Tourniquets used during total knee arthroplasty may lead to many complications. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative blood loss and its clinical relevance in total knee replacement surgery after applying a tourniquet. METHODS From June 2009 to October 2009, 60 consecutive patients who underwent routine total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with or without a tourniquet (30 patients/group). There were no significant differences in patient baseline characteristics between the two groups. We compared the two groups of patients in terms of intra- and postoperative bleeding, invisible or visible bleeding, and total blood loss. RESULTS None of the patients showed poor wound healing, lower extremity deep venous thrombosis or other complications. The amount of blood loss during surgery was lower in the tourniquet group than in the control group (P < 0. 01). However, postoperative visible bleeding (P < 0. 05) and occult bleeding (P < 0. 05) were significantly greater in the tourniquet group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups (P > 0. 05). CONCLUSIONS Tourniquet can reduce bleeding during total knee replacement surgery, but is associated with greater visible and invisible blood loss.