The Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Modern rheumatology. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). METHODS A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews And Meta-analyses). PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find articles published between July 1919 and May 2021 concerning IVIG therapy in PM/DM. We analyzed continuum data through mean difference and the estimated pooled improvement rate through Log transformation. We calculated all the effect measures with a 95% confidence interval. The I²statistic was calculated to assess statistical heterogeneity across the studies. I²values of 25%, 50% and 75% were defined as low, moderate and high, respectively. All analyses were conducted using R Studio, Version 3.6.3. RESULTS Seventeen papers pertinent to our questions were found: three case-control studies, fourteen non-randomized studies. We evaluated the efficacy of IVIG in DM/PM by the indicators of creatine kinase (CK), Manual Muscle Test (MMT) scores, Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the pooled improvement rate. In a meta-analysis, we found that IVIG significantly improved the level of CK (SMD -0.69, 95%CI -0.93, -0.46; P<0.0001), MMT (SMD 1.12; 95%CI 0.77, 1.47; P<0.00001), MRC (SMD 1.59; 95%CI 0.86, 2.33; P<0.00001), ADL (SMD 1.07; 95%CI 0.59, 1.56; P<0.0001). The CK levels in DM and PM were also significantly improved after IVIG (SMD = -0.73, 95%CI -1.12, -0.34; P=0.0002; and SMD = -3.29, 95%CI -5.82, -0.76; P < 0.0001, respectively). The meta-analysis of three RCTs showed that there was a statistically significant improvement after IVIG (SMD 0.63; 95%CI 0.22, 1.03; P=0.002). In a random effects model pooled muscle power improvement rate was 77% (95% CI: 66.0-87.0%). Meta-analyses of IVIG as first-line therapy showed a significant improvement of CK level (SMD -0.71; 95%CI -1.12, -0.30; P=0.0007). In three studies, the polled improvement rate of esophageal disorders was 88% (95% CI: 80.0-95.0%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of improvement between the number of courses < 2 and ≥ 2 (0.80 vs. 0.80 %, P = 0.9). The corticosteroid-sparing effect of IVIG was also well demonstrated, with the proportion of corticosteroid-sparing success reaching 81.8% (72/88). Adverse reactions included headache, fever, Hypotension and dizzy and so on. Mild cortical stroke, staphylococcal septicaemia, asymptomatic myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, deep vein thrombosis and subendocardial ischemia as severe adverse events were found in seven cases. CONCLUSION IVIG seems to be an effective drug for DM\PM, improving muscle strength, CK levels and esophageal involvement, and it is well tolerated by patients.
Application of enhanced recovery after surgery in total knee arthroplasty in patients with haemophilia A: A pilot study
Nursing open. 2021;8(1):80-86
AIM: To identify the effect of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and rapid rehabilitation concepts on the outcomes of patients with haemophilia A undergoing total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS The primary endpoint was postoperative hospital stay. The secondary endpoints were pain scores, joint function scores, haemoglobin levels at 3 and 7 days after surgery and satisfaction with hospitalization. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Compared with the routine nursing group, the ERAS group showed shorter postoperative hospital stay (14.2 SD 0.8 vs. 16.6 ± 1.3 days, p < .001), smaller amounts of blood transfusion (924 SD 317 vs. 1,263 SD 449 ml, p = .020) and coagulation factors (37,325 SD 5,996 vs. 48,475 SD 8,019 U, p < .001), lower pain scores at 3 (3.3 SD 0.7 vs. 4.3 SD 0.7, p = .002) and 7 (2.3 SD 0.7 vs. 2.8 ± 0.5, p = .015) days, lower hospital for special surgery knee scores at 3 (59.9 SD 7.8 vs. 53.6 SD 5.9, p = .016) and 7 (77.9 SD 6.9 vs. 71.1 ± 7.1, p = .009) days and higher satisfaction with hospitalization (94.3 SD 1.4 vs. 92.7 SD 1.6, p = .004).
Tranexamic acid given into wound reduces postoperative drainage, blood loss, and hospital stay in spinal surgeries: a meta-analysis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):401
BACKGROUND Although intravenous tranexamic acid administration (ivTXA) has prevailed in clinical antifibrinolytic treatment, whether it increases thromboembolic risks has remained controversial. As a potent alternative to ivTXA, topical use of TXA (tTXA) has been successfully applied to attenuate blood loss in various surgical fields while minimizing systemic exposure to TXA. This meta-analysis was conducted to gather scientific evidence for tTXA efficacy on reducing postoperative drainage, blood loss, and the length of hospital stay in spine surgeries. OBJECTIVES To examine whether topical use of TXA (tTXA) reduces postoperative drainage output and duration, hidden blood loss, hemoglobin level drop, hospital stay, and adverse event rate, we reviewed both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that assessed the aforementioned efficacies of tTXA compared with placebo in patients undergoing cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal surgeries. METHODS An exhaustive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January 2000 through March 2020. Measurable outcomes were pooled using Review Manager (RevMan) version 5.0 in a meta-analysis. RESULTS Significantly reduced postoperative drainage output (weighted mean difference [WMD]= - 160.62 ml, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [- 203.41, - 117.83]; p < .00001) and duration (WMD= - 0.75 days, 95% CI [- 1.09, - 0.40]; p < .0001), perioperative hidden blood loss (WMD= - 91.18ml, 95% CI [- 121.42, - 60.94]; p < .00001), and length of hospital stay (WMD= - 1.32 days, 95% CI [- 1.90, - 0.74]; p < .00001) were observed in tTXA group. Pooled effect for Hb level drop with tTXA vs placebo crossed the equivalent line by a mere 0.05 g/dL, with the predominant distribution of 95% confidence interval (CI) favoring tTXA use. CONCLUSIONS With the most comprehensive literature inclusion up to the present, this meta-analysis suggests that tTXA use in spinal surgeries significantly reduces postoperative drainage, hidden blood loss, and hospital stay duration. The pooled effect also suggests that tTXA appears more effective than placebo in preserving postoperative Hb level, which needs further validation by future studies.
Patients undergoing spinal surgery (13 studies).
Topical use of tranexamic acid (tTXA).
Those in the tTXA group showed significantly reduced postoperative drainage output (weighted mean difference (WMD) = - 160.62 ml) and duration (WMD = - 0.75 days), perioperative hidden blood loss (WMD = - 91.18ml), and length of hospital stay (WMD = - 1.32 days).
Terlipressin for the treatment of septic shock in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC anesthesiology. 2020;20(1):58
BACKGROUND Catecholamines are the first-line vasopressors used in patients with septic shock. However, the search for novel drug candidates is still of great importance due to the development of adrenergic hyposensitivity accompanied by a decrease in catecholamine activity. Terlipressin (TP) is a synthetic vasopressin analogue used in the management of patients with septic shock. In the current study, we aimed to compare the effects of TP and catecholamine infusion in treating septic shock patients. METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching articles published in PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials between inception and July 2018. We only selected randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of TP and catecholamine in adult patients with septic shock. The primary outcome was overall mortality. The secondary outcomes were the ICU length of stay, haemodynamic changes, tissue perfusion, renal function, and adverse events. RESULTS A total of 9 studies with 850 participants were included in the analysis. Overall, no significant difference in mortality was observed between the TP and catecholamine groups (risk ratio(RR), 0.85 (0.70 to 1.03); P = 0.09). In patients < 60 years old, the mortality rate was lower in the TP group than in the catecholamine group (RR, 0.66 (0.50 to 0.86); P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the ICU length of stay (mean difference, MD), - 0.28 days; 95% confidence interval (CI), - 1.25 to 0.69; P = 0.58). Additionally, TP improved renal function. The creatinine level was decreased in patients who received TP therapy compared to catecholamine-treated participants (standard mean difference, SMD), - 0.65; 95% CI, - 1.09 to - 0.22; P = 0.003). No significant difference was found regarding the total adverse events (Odds Ratio(OR), 1.48(0.51 to 4.24); P = 0.47), whereas peripheral ischaemia was more common in the TP group (OR, 8.65(1.48 to 50.59); P = 0.02). CONCLUSION The use of TP was associated with reduced mortality in septic shock patients less than 60 years old. TP may also improve renal function and cause more peripheral ischaemia. PROSPERO registry: CRD42016035872.
Role of Xingnaojing Injection in treating acute cerebral hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(15):e19648
BACKGROUND Xingnaojing injection (XNJi) is widely used for acute cerebral hemorrhage. However, the efficacy of XNJi for acute cerebral hemorrhage has not been comprehensively proved by systematic analysis yet. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the efficacy and safety of XNJi in an evidence-based method. METHODS Six databases were searched with XNJi used for acute cerebral hemorrhage in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.3. The efficacy rate, brain edema, cerebral hematoma, neurological deficit score, hs-crp, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and activities of daily living (ADL) were systematically evaluated. The Cochrane risk of bias was used to evaluate the methodological quality of eligible studies. RESULTS This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018098737). Twenty-nine studies with a total of 2638 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with conventional treatment, XNJi got higher efficacy rate (OR = 3.37, 95% CI [2.65, 4.28], P < .00001). Moreover, XNJi showed significant enhancement of efficacy rate via subgroup analysis in course and dosage. In addition, XNJi demonstrated significant improvement in Chinese stroke scale (CSS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS) (mean difference [MD] = -4.74, 95% CI [-5.89, -3.60], P < .00001; MD = -4.45, 95% CI [-5.49, -3.41], P < .00001), GCS (MD = 2.72, 95% CI [2.09, 3.35], P < .00001). It also remarkably decreased the level of hs-crp (MD = -6.50, 95% CI [-7.79, -5.21], P < .00001), enhanced ADL (MD = 20.38, 95% CI [17.98, 22.79], P < .00001), and alleviated hematoma and edema (MD = -2.53, 95% CI [-4.75, -0.31] P < .05; MD = -1.74 95% CI [-2.42, -1.07] P < .00001) compared with conventional treatment. CONCLUSION XNJi is effective in treating acute cerebral hemorrhage with significant improvement of CSS, NHISS and impairment of hs-crp, hematoma, and edema compared with conventional treatment. Moreover, XNJi got remarkable efficacy at the dose of 20, 30, 60 mL and from 7 to 28 days. No serious adverse reactions occurred. These results were mainly based on small-sample and low-quality studies. Therefore, more rigorous, large-scale RCTs were further needed to confirm its efficacy, safety, and detailed characteristic of application.
Outcomes of platelet-rich plasma for plantar fasciopathy: a best-evidence synthesis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2020;15(1):432
BACKGROUND Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is a very common disease, affecting about 1/10 people in their lifetime. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) had been demonstrated to be useful in achieving helpful effects for plantar fasciopathy. The purpose of this study was to compare the pain and functional outcomes between PRP and corticosteroid (CS) or placebo for plantar fasciopathy through meta-analysis and provide the best evidence. METHODS Literature was searched systematically to explore related studies that were published in Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Medline, SpringerLink, OVID, and ClinicalTrials.gov . Articles regarding comparative research about the outcomes of PRP therapy and CS or placebo injection were selected. Data of pain and functional outcomes was extracted and imported into Reviewer Manager 5.3 to analyze. RESULTS Thirteen RCTs were included and analyzed. Analysis results showed significant superiority of PRP in outcome scores when compared with CS (VAS: MD = - 0.85, P < 0.0001, I(2) = 85%; AOFAS MD = 10.05, P < 0.0001, I(2) = 85%), whereas there is no statistical difference in well-designed double-blind trials (VAS: MD = 0.15, P = 0.72, I(2) = 1%; AOFAS MD = 2.71, P = 0.17, I(2) = 0%). In the comparison of the PRP and the placebo, the pooled mean difference was - 3.76 (P < 0.0001, 95% CI = - 4.34 to - 3.18). CONCLUSIONS No superiority of PRP had been found in well-designed double-blind studies, whereas it is implied that the outcomes of PRP are better than placebo based on available evidence.
Effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin for children with severe COVID-19: A rapid review
Annals of Translational Medicine. 2020
Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is usually used as supportive therapy, but the treatment of COVID-19 by IVIG is controversial This rapid review aims to explore the clinical effectiveness and safety of IVIG in the treatment of children with severe COVID-19 Methods: We systematically searched the literature on the use of IVIG in patients with COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), including both adults and children We assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence and reported the main findings descriptively Results: A total of 1,519 articles were identified by initial literature search, and finally six studies met our inclusion criteria, included one randomized controlled trial (RCT), four case series and one case report involving 198 patients One case series showed the survival of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was not improved by IVIG One case report showed high-dose IVIG could improve the outcome of COVID-19 adults Three observational studies showed inconsistent results of the effect of IVIG on SARS patients One RCT showed that IVIG did not reduce mortality or the incidence of nosocomial infection in adults with severe SARS The quality of evidence was between low and very low Conclusions: The existing evidence is insufficient to support the efficacy or safety of IVIG in the treatment of COVID-19
Transfusions and cost-benefit of oral versus intravenous tranexamic acid in primary total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the cost benefit and transfusions of oral and IV tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral and IV TXA in primary THA. Primary outcomes were total blood loss, maximum hemoglobin drop, transfusion requirements, and cost benefit. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS Four independent RCTs were included involving 391 patients. There was no difference in the total blood loss (P = .99), maximum hemoglobin drop (P = .73), and the length of stay (P = .95) between the 2 groups. Transfusion requirements (P = .97) were similar. The total mean cost was the US $75.41 in oral TXA group and the US $580.83 in IV TXA group. The incidence of DVT (P = .3) did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, and no PE was reported in all studies. CONCLUSION Oral TXA shows similar efficacy and safety as IV TXA in reducing total blood loss, maximum hemoglobin drop and transfusion requirements in primary THA. However, oral TXA may be more cost-benefit than IV TXA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, therapeutic study.
Norepinephrine vs vasopressin: which vasopressor should be discontinued first in septic shock? a meta-analysis
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 2019
BACKGROUND Patients with septic shock in whom Norepinephrine (NE) infusion alone is insufficient to raise blood pressure require the concomitant administration of Vasopressin (VP). However, current guidelines do not advise clinicians as to which vasoactive agent to discontinue first once the patient's septic shock begins to resolve. Moreover, there is controversial data guiding clinicians on how to discontinue vasopressors for septic shock patients who are receiving a combination therapy of NE and VP. METHODS The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register databases were searched from the database inception until October 18, 2018. Studies were limited to adult patients with septic shock who received concomitant NE and VP treatment, that included different orders of vasopressor discontinuation. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension. Overall mortality, ICU mortality and length of stay in the ICU (LOS) were secondary outcomes. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses, as well as trial sequential analysis (TSA), were performed. RESULTS One prospective randomized controlled trial and seven retrospective cohort studies were included in present meta-analysis. Compared with discontinuing VP first, the incidence of hypotension was significantly lower when NE was discontinued first (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.86, P = 0.02; I = 91%). No significant difference was detected in either overall mortality (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.10, P = 0.34) or ICU mortality (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34, P = 0.96) between these two groups. Furthermore, ICU length of stay (LOS) was also evaluated in five studies, and no statistical significance was observed between the two groups with different orders in weaning vasopressors (mean difference, 1.35, 95% CI -2.05 to 4.74, P = 0.44). The subgroup analyses suggested a significant association between hypotension and the practice of discontinuing VP first specifically in patients with a low usage rate of corticosteroids (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78, P = 0.02). The TSA indicated a lack of sufficient evidence to draw conclusions from the current results (RIS = 11,821). CONCLUSIONS In adults with septic shock treated with concomitant VP and NE therapy, discontinuing VP first may lead to a higher incidence of hypotension but is not associated with mortality or ICU LOS. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.
Effects of chloride content of intravenous crystalloid solutions in critically ill adult patients: a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized trials
Annals of intensive care. 2019;9(1):30
BACKGROUND Intravenous crystalloid solutions are administered commonly for critically ill patients. We performed this meta-analysis of randomized trials with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to evaluate effects of chloride content of intravenous crystalloid solutions on clinical outcomes among critically ill adult patients. METHODS Electronic databases were searched up to June 1, 2018, for randomized trials of use of balanced crystalloids versus 0.9% saline solutions in critically ill adult patients. The outcome variables included mortality, renal outcomes, serum content alterations and organ function. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to patient settings, types or volume of crystalloid fluid, or among sepsis versus non-sepsis, TBI versus non-TBI or subpopulations by the categories of baseline kidney function. Random errors were evaluated by trial sequential analysis. RESULTS Eight studies with 19,301 patients were analyzed. A trend of in-hospital survival benefit with no statistical difference could be observed with balanced crystalloids compared with 0.9% saline (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-1.0, p = 0.06). The use of balanced crystalloid solutions was associated with longer RRT-free days (SMD 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.12, p < 0.001), less risk of increase in serum concentrations of chloride (SMD - 1.23, 95% CI - 1.59 to - 0.87, p < 0.001) and sodium (SMD - 1.28, 95% CI - 1.65 to - 0.92, p < 0.001), less risk of decline in serum base deficit (SMD - 0.58, 95% CI - 0.98 to - 0.18, p = 0.004), longer ventilator-free days (SMD 0.08, 95% CI 0.05-0.11, p < 0.001) and vasopressor-free days (SMD 0.04, 95% CI 0.00-0.07, p = 0.02). Subgroup analysis showed that balanced crystalloid solutions were associated with a reduced in-hospital mortality rate among septic patients (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98; p = 0.02) and non-traumatic brain injury patients (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99, p = 0.02), while the TSA results indicated a larger sample size is still in need. CONCLUSIONS Limited evidence supported statistical survival benefit with balanced crystalloid solutions, while it benefited in reducing organ support duration and fluctuations in serum electrolyte and base excess and was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in subpopulation with sepsis and non-TBI. Large-scale rigorous randomized trials with better designs are needed to provide robust evidence for clinical management. Trial registration The protocol for this meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42018102661), https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/#recordDetails.