Identification of Parameters Representative of Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Severe and Fatal COVID-19 Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology. 2022;:1-33
Abnormal immunological indicators associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 have been reported in several observational studies. However, there are marked heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies. We aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between immune-related indicators and COVID-19 prognosis. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and CNKI for studies reporting immunological and/or immune-related parameters, including hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical variables, tested on hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes. A total of 145 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 26 immunological, 11 hematological, 5 inflammatory, 4 coagulation, and 10 biochemical variables reported. Of them, levels of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgG, and CD4(+) T/CD8(+) T cell ratio, WBC, neutrophil, platelet, ESR, CRP, ferritin, SAA, D-dimer, FIB, and LDH were significantly increased in severely ill patients or non-survivors. Moreover, non-severely ill patients or survivors presented significantly higher counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte/monocyte ratio, eosinophils, CD3(+) T,CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The currently updated meta-analysis primarily identified a hypercytokinemia profile with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 containing IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, reflected by decreased eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, NK cells, T cells, and their subtype CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and augmented inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and nonpulmonary organ injury, were marked features of patients with poor prognosis. Therefore, parameters of immune response dysfunction combined with inflammatory, coagulated, or nonpulmonary organ injury indicators may be more sensitive to predict severe patients and those non-survivors.
The therapeutic value of arthroscopic microfracture technique in combination with platelet-rich plasma injection for knee cartilage injury
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(4):2694-2701
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection combined with arthroscopic microfracture technique for knee cartilage injury. METHODS Seventy-nine patients with knee cartilage injury were randomly divided into a control group (CG, n=39) and an observation group (OBG, n=40). Both of the groups were treated with the arthroscopic microfracture technique, and the OBG was additionally treated with PRP injection. RESULTS The VAS scores for pain in the affected area of the OBG were lower than those of the CG at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after surgery (P < 0.05). Knee flexion, hyperextension, and rotation angles in the OBG were greater than those in the CG at 1 month after surgery (P < 0.05). IKDC scores in the OBG were lower than those in the CG at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05). The Tegner and Lysholm scores in the OBG were higher than those in the CG at 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery (P < 0.05). The complication rate in the OBG was 10.00%, which was lower than that of 28.21% in the CG (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The efficacy of microfracture technique combined with PRP injection in the treatment of knee joint cartilage injury is significantly improved compared with that of microfracture technique alone, which can reduce postoperative complications and improve the range of motion and function of the knee joint.
Clinical Features and Therapeutic Effects of Anti-leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 Encephalitis: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:791014
Background: Clinical presentations and treatment programs about anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis still remain incompletely understood. Objective: This study analyzed the clinical features and therapeutic effects of anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify published English and Chinese articles until April 2021. Data were extracted, analyzed, and recorded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 80 publications detailing 485 subjects matched our inclusion criteria. Short-term memory loss (75.22%), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) (52.53%), other seizures excluding FBDS (68.48%), psychiatric symptoms (57.67%), and sleep disturbances (34.30%) were the most frequently described symptoms in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Hyponatremia (54.90%) was the most common hematologic examination change. The risk of incidence rate of malignant tumors was higher than in healthy people. The positive rate of anti-LGI1 in serum (99.79%) was higher than CSF (77.38%). Steroids (93.02%), IVIG (87.50%), and combined use (96.67%) all had a high remission rate in the initial visit. A total of 35 of 215 cases relapsed, of which 6/35 (17.14%) did not use first-line treatment, and 21 (60.00%) did not maintain long-term treatment. Plasma exchange (PE) could be combined in severe patients, immunosuppressant could be used for refractory patients or for recurrence and using an anti-epileptic drug to control seizures may benefit cognition. Conclusions: Short-term memory loss, FBDS, psychiatric symptoms, and hyponatremia were key features in identifying anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Serum and CSF antibody tests should be considered in diagnosis criteria. Steroids with IVIG should be recommended, PE was combined for use in severe patients, immunosuppressant therapy might improve outcomes if recurrence or progression occurred, and control seizures might benefit cognition. The useful ways to reduce relapse rate were early identification, clear diagnosis, rapid treatment, and maintaining long-term treatment. The follow-up advice was suggested according to the research of paraneoplastic syndrome, and concern about tumors was vital as well.
Artificial Dermis and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for Treatment of Refractory Wounds: A Clinical Study
The international journal of lower extremity wounds. 2021;:15347346211050710
Refractory wounds present a complex and serious clinical dilemma in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, there are currently no standard guidelines for the treatment of refractory wounds. Artificial dermis (AD) has achieved some satisfactory results, but also has some limitations. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), as a cell-therapy material, was a valuable and safe treatment dressing for chronic non-healing wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of artificial dermis (AD) with and without autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in patients with refractory wounds. Sixteen patients with refractory wounds were randomly allocated to autologous PRP therapy combined with artificial dermis (PRP + AD [N = 8]) or an artificial dermis program only (AD [N = 8]). We compared the efficacies of the two methods in terms of times to wound healing, infection control, and AD vascularization, as well as hospitalization days and eventual clinical outcomes.13 patients achieved complete healing, including seven (87.5%) in the PRP + AD group and six (75.0%) in the AD group (P > .05). The times to wound healing, infection control, and AD vascularization, and hospitalization time after transfer were significantly shorter in the PRP + AD group compared with the AD group (P < .05). In conclusion, the combination of AD and PRP promoted refractory wound healing and shortened waiting times compared with simple dermal grafts.
Liberal blood transfusion strategies and associated infection in orthopedic patients: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.
Balanced crystalloids versus saline in critically ill patients: The PRISMA study of a meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE To compare the safety of balanced crystalloids and saline among critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS The Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to May 17, 2020 in order to identify randomized controlled trials which evaluated the safety of balanced crystalloids and saline in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was major adverse kidney events within 30 days (MAKE30). The second outcomes included 30-day mortality, ICU mortality, In-hospital mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, creatinine highest before discharge (mg/dl) and needs for renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESULTS A total of nine randomized controlled trials involving 19,578 critical ill patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The outcomes of this meta-analysis showed that balanced crystalloids treatment shared the same risk of MAKE30 with saline treatment among critical ill patients [RR = 0.95; 95%CI, 0.88 to 1.01; Z = 1.64 (P = .102)]. The clinical mortality which included 30-day mortality [RR = 0.92; 95%CI, 0.85 to 1.01; Z = 1.78 (P = .075)], ICU mortality [RR = 0.92; 95%CI, 0.83 to 1.02; Z = 1.67 (P = .094)] and In-hospital mortality [RR = 0.93; 95%CI, 0.71 to 1.21; Z = 0.55 (P = .585)] were similar between balanced crystalloids treatment and saline treatment among critical ill patients. Patients who received balanced crystalloids treatment or saline treatment needed the same length of ICU stay [WMD = 0.00; 95%CI, -0.09 to 0.10; Z = 0.09 (P = .932)] and hospital stay [WMD = 0.59; 95%CI, -0.33 to 1.51; Z = 1.26 (P = .209)]. Critical ill patients who received balanced crystalloids treatment or saline treatment had the same level of creatinine highest before discharge [WMD = 0.01; 95%CI, -0.02 to 0.04; Z = 0.76 (P = .446)] and needs for RRT [RR = 1.04; 95%CI, 0.75 to 1.43; Z = 0.21 (P = .830)]. Similar results were obtained in subgroups of trials stratified according to the age of patients (children or adults). CONCLUSIONS When compared with saline, balanced crystalloids could not reduce the risk of MAKE30, 30-day mortality, ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality, could not reduce the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, the level of creatinine highest before discharge and the needs for RRT among critical ill children and adults. Therefore, it was still too early for balanced crystalloids to replace normal saline among critical ill patients.
Effect of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate combined with tranexamic acid on blood loss and inflammatory response in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty
Bone & joint research. 2021;10(6):354-362
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) combined with tranexamic acid (TXA) on blood loss and inflammatory responses after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), and to investigate the influence of different administration methods of CSS on perioperative blood loss during THA. METHODS This study is a randomized controlled trial involving 200 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA. A total of 200 patients treated with intravenous TXA were randomly assigned to group A (combined intravenous and topical CSS), group B (topical CSS), group C (intravenous CSS), or group D (placebo). RESULTS Mean total blood loss (TBL) in groups A (605.0 ml (SD 235.9)), B (790.9 ml (SD 280.7)), and C (844.8 ml (SD 248.1)) were lower than in group D (1,064.9 ml (SD 318.3), p < 0.001). We also found that compared with group D, biomarker level of inflammation, transfusion rate, pain score, and hip range of motion at discharge in groups A, B, and C were significantly improved. There were no differences among the four groups in terms of intraoperative blood loss (IBL), intramuscular venous thrombosis (IMVT), and length of hospital stay (LOS). CONCLUSION The combined application of CSS and TXA is more effective than TXA alone in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion rates, inflammatory response, and postoperative hip pain, results in better early hip flexion following THA, and did not increase the associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) events. Intravenous combined with topical injection of CSS was superior to intravenous or topical injection of CSS alone in reducing perioperative blood loss. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(6):354-362.
The influence of topical use of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss on early operation for thoracolumbar burst fracture: a randomized double-blinded controlled study
European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2020;:1-7
PURPOSE To investigate the safety and efficacy of topical use of tranexamic acid (TXA) on early operation for thoracolumbar burst fracture (TBF). METHODS Patients with acute TBF requiring early decompression were prospectively collected. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to TXA and control group, in which wound surface was soaked with TXA or the same volume of normal saline for 5 min after wound incision, respectively. The total blood loss (TBL), intraoperative blood loss (IBL), postoperative blood loss (PBL), hemoglobin (HGB) levels on preoperatively (pre-op) and postoperatively, and amount of allogenic blood transfusion were recorded. Furthermore, the general information was also compared between groups. RESULTS There were 39 and 37 patients enrolled in TXA and control group for final analysis. The demographics data showed no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05), but operation time and IBL were significantly decreased in TXA group (P < 0.05). Further analysis showed that HGB level was significantly higher in the TXA group at POD1, while the TBL and PBL were significantly less than those in the control group (P < 0.05), but similar to HBL (P > 0.05). The postoperative ambulation time, removal time of drainage tube, length of hospital stay, and blood transfusion rate were also significantly less in TXA group (P < 0.05). At the final follow-up, no neurological deteriorations and no TXA-related complications were observed in both groups. CONCLUSION This RCT first demonstrated that topical TXA usage after wound incision could effectively reduce IBL without increasing risk of complications, beneficial to enhanced recovery after early operation for TBF.
Prevention of recurrent miscarriage in women with antiphospholipid syndrome: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
OBJECTIVES To compare and rank currently available pharmacological interventions for the prevention of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS A search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, CNKI, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the UK National Research Register on December 15, 2019. Studies comparing any types of active interventions with placebo/inactive control or another active intervention for the prevention of RM in patients with APS were considered for inclusion. The primary outcomes were efficacy (measured by live birth rate) and acceptability (measured by all-cause discontinuation); secondary outcomes were birthweight, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth retardation. The protocol of this study was registered with Open Science Framework (DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/B9T4E). RESULTS In total, 54 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprising 4,957 participants were included. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) alone, aspirin plus LMWH or unfractionated heparin (UFH), aspirin plus LMWH plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), aspirin plus LMWH plus IVIG plus prednisone were found to be effective pharmacological interventions for increasing live birth rate (ORs ranging between 2.88 to 11.24). In terms of acceptability, no significant difference was found between treatments. In terms of adverse perinatal outcomes, aspirin alone was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth than aspirin plus LMWH (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.16 to 16.44) and with lower birthweight than LMWH (SMD -808.76, 95% CI -1596.54 to -5.07). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the use of low-dose aspirin plus heparin as the first-line treatment for prevention of RM in women with APS, and support the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine, IVIG, and prednisone when added to current treatment regimens. More large-scale, high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm these findings, and new pharmacological options should be further evaluated.
Clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma as adjuvant therapy in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of meniscal injury
The Journal of international medical research. 2020;48(9):300060520955059
OBJECTIVE The clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as adjuvant therapy in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of meniscal injury remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PRP in the treatment of meniscal injury and provide evidence for the selection of clinical treatment options. METHODS A computer-based search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to retrieve articles using the search terms "platelet-rich plasma" and "menisci." Quality evaluation and data extraction were performed. The combined effect was assessed using RevMan version 5.3 software. RESULTS Three randomized controlled trials and three cohort studies involving 293 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences in the International Knee Documentation Committee score or Lysholm score between the experimental and control groups. The failure rate and visual analog scale score were significantly lower and the degree of active flexion was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. CONCLUSION The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that PRP injection can effectively enhance the efficacy of arthroscopic repair of meniscal injury, reduce the failure rate and severity of pain, and improve active flexion.