Deferoxamine mesylate in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (i-DEF): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial
The Lancet. Neurology. 2019
BACKGROUND Iron from haemolysed blood is implicated in secondary injury after intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to assess the safety of the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and to establish whether the drug merits investigation in a phase 3 trial. METHODS We did a multicentre, futility-design, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial at 40 hospitals in Canada and the USA. Adults aged 18-80 years with primary, spontaneous, supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive deferoxamine mesylate (32 mg/kg per day) or placebo (saline) infusions for 3 consecutive days within 24 h of haemorrhage onset. Randomisation was done via a web-based trial-management system centrally in real time, and treatment allocation was concealed from both participants and investigators. The primary outcome was good clinical outcome, which was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at day 90. We did a futility analysis: if the 90% upper confidence bound of the absolute risk difference between the two groups in the proportion of participants with a good clinical outcome was less than 12% in favour of deferoxamine mesylate, then to move to a phase 3 efficacy trial would be futile. Primary outcome and safety data were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, comprising only participants in whom the study infusions were initiated. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02175225, and is completed. FINDINGS We recruited 294 participants between Nov 23, 2014, and Nov 10, 2017. The modified intention-to-treat population consisted of 144 patients assigned to the deferoxamine mesylate group and 147 assigned to the placebo group. At day 90, among patients with available data for the primary outcome, 48 (34%) of 140 participants in the deferoxamine mesylate group, and 47 (33%) of 143 patients in the placebo group, had modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-2 (adjusted absolute risk difference 0.6% [90% upper confidence bound 6.8%]). By day 90, 70 serious adverse events were reported in 39 (27%) of 144 patients in the deferoxamine mesylate group, and 78 serious adverse events were reported in 49 (33%) of 147 patients in the placebo group. Ten (7%) participants in the deferoxamine mesylate and 11 (7%) in the placebo group died. None of the deaths were judged to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION Deferoxamine mesylate was safe. However, the primary result showed that further study of the efficacy of deferoxamine mesylate with anticipation that the drug would significantly improve the chance of good clinical outcome (ie, mRS score of 0-2) at day 90 would be futile. FUNDING US National Institutes of Health and US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke) trials: analysis of the combined data From parts 1 and 2
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2016;47((9):):2355-9
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke) part 1 and 2 trials evaluated whether 25% human serum albumin improves clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke above and beyond standard of care using similar protocols. The part 1 trial ended prematurely because of safety concerns, and the part 2 trial terminated early because of futility of finding a statistically significant effect of albumin over saline (control) administration. We combine the subject-level data of the part 1 and 2 trials to reevaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes with the larger sample size. METHODS The combined data analyses closely follow those conducted in the part 2 trial. The primary outcome is the composite of the modified Rankin Scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale defined as a composite of modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 1 and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0 to 1 at 90 days from randomization. The unadjusted analyses use a simple Chi-square test, and those adjusting for baseline covariates use a generalized linear model with log link (to obtain relative risks). RESULTS The participant characteristics at baseline were generally similar between the treatment groups and between the trials; however, thrombolysis use was greater in part 2 (84% versus 75%), and the upper age limit imposed in part 2 resulted in a younger sample (mean age in part 1 was 69 versus 64 in part 2). In the combined sample, the proportions of good outcome in the 2 treatment groups were identical (41%). Similar results were observed in all secondary efficacy outcomes. Pulmonary edema was a consistent safety concern, with a 6-fold increase in the albumin arm (13%) compared with saline (2%; relative risk =7.76, 95% confidence interval 3.87-15.57). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with intravenous albumin 25% at 2 g/kg was not associated with improved outcome at 90 days and was associated with increased rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00235495.
The albumin in acute stroke (ALIAS) multicenter clinical trial: safety analysis of part 1 and rationale and design of part 2
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE enrollment in the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trial was suspended in late 2007 due to a safety concern. We present the safety data of that Trial (Part 1) and the rationale for the design of Part 2.METHODS ALIAS Part 1 was designed to assess whether 25% albumin (ALB) started within 5 hours of stroke onset would confer neuroprotection in subjects with acute ischemic stroke and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of >=6. Exclusion criteria included recent or current congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, or cardiac surgery. The study comprised 2 cohorts: subjects who received thrombolysis and those who did not, each with 1:1 randomization to ALB or placebo. The primary outcome was the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scales at 90 days. The intended sample size was 1800.RESULTS four hundred thirty-four subjects were enrolled, and 424 were used in the safety analysis (ALB 207, saline 217). There were 36 deaths within the first 30 days in the ALB group and 21 in the saline group. In contrast, death rates after 30 days were similar by treatment. Large strokes were the predominant cause of early death in both groups. In subjects >83 years of age, 90-day death rates were 2.3-fold higher with ALB than with saline (95% CI, 1.04 to 5.12). Similarly, 90-day deaths in subjects receiving excessive fluids were 2.10-fold greater with ALB than with saline (CI, 1.10 to 3.98).CONCLUSIONS The ALIAS Part 2 Trial, which started in early 2009, was modified as follows to enhance safety: upper age limit of 83 years; requirement for normal baseline serum troponin level; restriction of total intravenous fluids in the first 48 hours to <= 4200 mL; mandatory diuretic at 12 to 24 hours; and detailed site retraining. Because of insufficient nonthrombolysed subjects (22%) in Part 1, the 2-cohort design was eliminated. The Data Safety Monitoring Board has reviewed the safety data of Part 2 3 times and has approved continuation of the trial.