The safety of activated eptacog beta in the management of bleeding episodes and perioperative haemostasis in adult and paediatric haemophilia patients with inhibitors
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION Haemophilia patients with inhibitors often require a bypassing agent (BPA) for bleeding episode management. Eptacog beta (EB) is a new FDA-approved recombinant activated human factor VII BPA for the treatment and control of bleeding in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors (≥12 years of age). We describe here the EB safety profile from the three prospective Phase 3 clinical trials performed to date. AIM: To assess EB safety, immunogenicity and thrombotic potential in children and adults who received EB for treatment of bleeding and perioperative care. METHODS Using a randomized crossover design, 27 subjects in PERSEPT 1 (12-54 years) and 25 subjects in PERSEPT 2 (1-11 years) treated bleeding episodes with 75 or 225 μg/kg EB initially followed by 75 μg/kg dosing at predefined intervals as determined by clinical response. Twelve PERSEPT 3 subjects (2-56 years) received an initial preoperative infusion of 75 μg/kg (minor procedures) or 200 μg/kg EB (major surgeries) with subsequent 75 μg/kg doses administered intraoperatively and post-operatively as indicated. Descriptive statistics were used for data analyses. RESULTS Sixty subjects who received 3388 EB doses in three trials were evaluated. EB was well tolerated, with no allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic or thrombotic events reported and no neutralizing anti-EB antibodies detected. A death occurred during PERSEPT 3 and was determined to be unlikely related to EB treatment by the data monitoring committee. CONCLUSION Results from all three Phase 3 trials establish an excellent safety profile of EB in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors for treatment of bleeding and perioperative use.
Outcomes for studies assessing the efficacy of hemostatic therapies in persons with congenital bleeding disorders
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION Management strategies and hemostatic treatments to achieve control of bleeding are relevant across many disease areas. Identification of primary outcomes for studies assessing hemostatic intervention was the objective of a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) sponsored multidisciplinary initiative. The aim of this report is to summarize the evidence reviewed, and the outcomes identified by the subgroup tasked to assess outcomes for inherited bleeding disorders. METHODS The subgroup decided to focus on haemophilia, the prototypal congenital bleeding disorder and the one with the largest available body of evidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, The Cochrane Review, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched for systematic and narrative reviews on outcomes used in haemophilia clinical trials. Three different clinical goals were identified as typical objectives of future research. RESULTS Out of 1322 unique citations, 24 reviews published in the period 2002-2019 were included. We identified 113 outcome measures, categorized in 6 domains: health-related quality of life (HRQoL), comorbidities and mortality, overall physical functioning and participation, bleeding and hemostasis, joint health, and costs and resource use. Three different clinical goals were identified as typical objectives of future research: Episodic 'on demand' replacement therapy, prevention of bleeding (Prophylaxis), and long-term and overall impact of bleeding. For each of these scenarios, specific outcomes were recommended. CONCLUSIONS Primary outcomes for clinical trials assessing the efficacy of hemostatic treatment in achieving control, prevention and limiting long-term consequences of bleeding in inherited bleeding disorders are suggested, and their strength and limitations discussed.
Recombinant long-acting glycoPEGylated factor IX (nonacog beta pegol) in haemophilia B: assessment of target joints in multinational phase 3 clinical trials
Haemophilia : the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2016;22((4):):507-13
BACKGROUND The paradigm 2 and 4 phase 3 clinical trials investigated the safety and efficacy of nonacog beta pegol, a recombinant glycoPEGylated factor IX (FIX) with extended half-life, in previously treated haemophilia B patients. AIM: These post hoc analyses investigated the bleeding patterns in target joints. METHODS Patients randomized to 40 or 10 IU kg-1 once weekly prophylaxis who had at least one target joint were included. Baseline demographics and disease-specific data were collected. Bleeding patterns were assessed, and an International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) definition of target joints was used. RESULTS A total of 67% and 8% of patients in the 40 and 10 IU kg-1 arm, respectively, did not experience target joint bleeds during the paradigm 2 trial. Twenty-four target joints were recorded in each prophylaxis arm at baseline. During the paradigm 2 trial, no bleeds were reported in 17 (71%) and 7 (29%) target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg-1 arms respectively. All target joint bleeds in the 40 IU kg-1 once weekly prophylaxis arm were controlled with a single injection of 40 IU kg-1 nonacog beta pegol. By the latest ISTH definition, 90% and 58% of target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg-1 arms, respectively, were no longer considered target joints at the end of the paradigm 2 trial. At the end of the paradigm 4 extension trial, all target joints in the 40 IU kg-1 arm were no longer considered target joints. CONCLUSION Routine prophylaxis with 40 IU kg-1 once weekly nonacog beta pegol has the potential for effective management of target joint bleeds in haemophilia B patients.
A randomized trial of factor VIII and neutralizing antibodies in hemophilia A
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;374((21)):2054-64.
BACKGROUND The development of neutralizing anti-factor VIII alloantibodies (inhibitors) in patients with severe hemophilia A may depend on the concentrate used for replacement therapy. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial to assess the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors among patients treated with plasma-derived factor VIII containing von Willebrand factor or recombinant factor VIII. Patients who met the eligibility criteria (male sex, age <6 years, severe hemophilia A, and no previous treatment with any factor VIII concentrate or only minimal treatment with blood components) were included from 42 sites. RESULTS Of 303 patients screened, 264 underwent randomization and 251 were analyzed. Inhibitors developed in 76 patients, 50 of whom had high-titer inhibitors (≥5 Bethesda units). Inhibitors developed in 29 of the 125 patients treated with plasma-derived factor VIII (20 patients had high-titer inhibitors) and in 47 of the 126 patients treated with recombinant factor VIII (30 patients had high-titer inhibitors). The cumulative incidence of all inhibitors was 26.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.4 to 35.2) with plasma-derived factor VIII and 44.5% (95% CI, 34.7 to 54.3) with recombinant factor VIII; the cumulative incidence of high-titer inhibitors was 18.6% (95% CI, 11.2 to 26.0) and 28.4% (95% CI, 19.6 to 37.2), respectively. In Cox regression models for the primary end point of all inhibitors, recombinant factor VIII was associated with an 87% higher incidence than plasma-derived factor VIII (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.96). This association did not change in multivariable analysis. For high-titer inhibitors, the hazard ratio was 1.69 (95% CI, 0.96 to 2.98). When the analysis was restricted to recombinant factor VIII products other than second-generation full-length recombinant factor VIII, effect estimates remained similar for all inhibitors (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 0.99 to 3.97) and high-titer inhibitors (hazard ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.11 to 6.00). CONCLUSIONS Patients treated with plasma-derived factor VIII containing von Willebrand factor had a lower incidence of inhibitors than those treated with recombinant factor VIII. (Funded by the Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01064284; EudraCT number, 2009-011186-88.).
Pharmacokinetic characteristics of factor VIII and IX concentrates – a systematic review
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2015;13((Suppl. 2)):357.. Abstract No. PO262-MON.
Rate of inhibitor development in previously untreated hemophilia A patients treated with plasma-derived or recombinant factor VIII concentrates: a systematic review
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2010;8((6):):1256-65.
Background: Different rates of inhibitor development after either plasma-derived (pdFVIII) or recombinant (rFVIII) FVIII have been suggested. However, conflicting results are reported in the literature. Objectives: To systematically review the incidence rates of inhibitor development in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with hemophilia A treated with either pdFVIII or rFVIII and to explore the influence of both study and patient characteristics. Methods: Summary incidence rates (95% confidence interval) from all included studies for both pdFVIII and rFVIII results were recalculated and pooled. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the effect of study design, severity of disease and inhibitor characteristics. Meta-regression and analysis-of-variance were used to investigate the effect of covariates (testing frequency, follow-up duration and intensity of treatment). Results: Two thousand and ninety-four patients (1167 treated with pdFVIII, 927 with rFVIII; median age, 9.6 months) from 24 studies were investigated and 420 patients were observed to develop inhibitors. Pooled incidence rate was 14.3% (10.4-19.4) for pdFVIII and 27.4% (23.6-31.5) for rFVIII; high responding inhibitor incidence rate was 9.3% (6.2-13.7) for pdFVIII and 17.4% (14.2-21.2) for rFVIII. In the multi-way anova study design, study period, testing frequency and median follow-up explained most of the variability, while the source of concentrate lost statistical significance. It was not possible to analyse the effect of intensity of treatment or trigger events such as surgery, and to completely exclude multiple reports of the same patient or changes of concentrate. Conclusions: These findings underscore the need for randomized controlled trials to address whether or not the risk of inhibitor in PUPs with hemophilia A differs between rFVIII and pdFVIII. 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.