Prophylactic transcatheter arterial embolization for high-risk ulcers following endoscopic hemostasis: a meta-analysis
World journal of emergency surgery : WJES. 2021;16(1):29
BACKGROUND To conduct a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of prophylactic transcatheter arterial embolization (PTAE) for the treatment of high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers after achieving endoscopic hemostasis. METHODS PubMed and Cochrane Library were queried for full-text articles published up to December 2019. The following keywords were used: "prophylactic embolization", "supplement embolization", "gastrointestinal bleeding", and "ulcer bleeding". High-risk ulcers were defined based on endoscopic findings (i.e., large ulcers, Forrest class I-IIb) and/or clinical presentation (i.e., hypotension, decreased hemoglobin during endoscopy). Only comparative studies investigating PTAE versus conservative treatment after achieving endoscopic hemostasis were included. Baseline study characteristics, rebleeding rate, need for surgery, mortality, and PTAE-related complication rates were investigated. Quantitative analyses were performed with Stata 15.1. RESULTS Among the five included original studies, a total of 265 patients received PTAE and 617 were managed conservatively after endoscopy. The rebleeding rate (6.8% vs 14.3%, p = 0.003) and mortality (4.5% vs 8.8%, p = 0.032) of patients from the PTAE group were lower than the control group. PTAE also reduced the cumulative need for future surgical intervention (3.0% vs 14.4%, p = 0.005). The PTAE-related major and minor events were 0.75% and 14.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION PTAE had therapeutic potentials in reducing rebleeding risk, need for surgical intervention, and morality in high-risk peptic ulcers after achieving endoscopic hemostasis. The embolization-associated adverse events were minimal. Future studies should aim to increase the sample size and resources for performing endovascular interventions.
Empiric Transcatheter Embolization for Acute Arterial Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Meta-Analysis
AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2021;:1-14
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of empiric embolization compared with targeted embolization in the treatment of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for studies performed without language restrictions from January 2000 to November 2019. Only clinical studies with a sample size of five or more were included. Clinical success, rebleeding and complication rates, survival rates, bleeding cause, embolic materials, and vessels embolized were recorded. Empiric embolization and targeted embolization (i.e., embolization performed based on angiographic evidence of ongoing bleeding) were compared when possible. Meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS. Among 13 included studies (12 retrospective and 1 prospective), a total of 357 of 725 patients (49.2%) underwent empiric embolization for UGIB. The clinical success rate of empiric embolization was 74.7% (95% CI, 63.1-86.3%) among the 13 studies, and the survival rate was 80.9% (95% CI, 73.8-88.0%) for 10 studies. On the basis of comparative studies, no statistically significant difference was observed between empiric and targeted embolization in terms of rebleeding rate in 111 studies (36.5% vs 29.6%; odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 0.77-1.65; p = .53), mortality in eight studies (23.3% vs 18.0%; OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.89-2.33; p = .14), and need for surgery to control rebleeding in four studies (17.8% vs 13.4%; OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.58-3.07; p = .49). The pooled embolization-specific complications were 1.9% (empiric) and 2.4% (targeted). CONCLUSION. According to all available published evidence, empiric embolization assessed with endoscopic or preprocedural imaging findings (or both) appears to be as effective as targeted embolization in preventing rebleeding and mortality in patients with angiographically negative acute UGIB. Because of its favorable safety profile, empiric embolization should be considered for patients in this clinical scenario.
Risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury
Respiratory care. 2021
Background: Until now, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has been considered to be the leading cause of blood transfusion-related diseases and death. And there is no clinically effective treatment plan for TRALI. The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the literature on risk factors for TRALI in critical patients.Methods: Electronic searches (up to March 2020) were performed in the Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, Embase, and PubMed databases. We included studies reporting on the risk factors of TRALI for critical patients and extracted the risk factors. Finally, thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria.Results: We summarized and analyzed the potential risk factors of TRALI for critical patients in 13 existing studies. The host-related factors were age (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.08-1.24]), female sex (OR = 1.26 [1.16-1.38]), tobacco use status (OR = 3.82 [1.91-7.65]), chronic alcohol abuse (OR = 3.82 [2.97-26.83]), positive fluid balance (OR = 1.24 [1.08-1.42]), shock before transfusion (OR = 4.41 [2.38-8.20]), and ASA score of the recipients (OR = 2.72 [1.43-5.16]). The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions (OR = 1.40 [1.14-1.72]) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units (OR = 1.21 [1.01-1.46]). The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.13 [2.20-7.76]).Conclusions: The risk factors for TRALI in this study included Number of transfusions and FFP units were positively correlated with TRALI. Age, female sex, tobacco use, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, ASA score and mechanical ventilation may be potential risk factors for TRALI. Our study suggests that host-related risk factors may play a more important role in the occurrence and development of TRALI than blood transfusion-related risk factors.
Critical care patients (13 studies).
Systematic review on the risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).
The host-related factors were age, female sex, tobacco use status, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, and ASA score of the recipients. The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions and fresh frozen plasma units. The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation.
Effects of Isovolumic Hemodilution and Platelet-Rich Plasma Separation on Platelet Activation State and Function, Complications, and Inflammation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
Clinical laboratory. 2021;67(1)
BACKGROUND To explore the effects of isovolumic hemodilution and platelet-rich plasma separation on platelet activation state and function, complications, and inflammation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS A total of 80 patients who needed cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation from February 2018 to December 2019 in our hospital were selected as research subjects and divided into observation group (n = 40) and control group (n = 40) according to the random number table method. The patients in the observation group underwent platelet-rich plasma separation, while those in control group received acute isovolumic hemodilution. Then the platelet activation state and functional indexes, hemorheological indexes, and the coagulation functional indexes were compared between the two groups of patients before operation. Next, the changes in the levels of hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory factor, during blood protection (before and at 6 hours and 12 hours after intervention) were analyzed. Moreover, the dosage of blood products during operation was compared between the two groups, and postoperative complications and recovery in the two groups were statistically assessed. RESULTS Before operation, the platelet adherence rate and aggregation rate in the observation group were significantly higher than those in control group (p < 0.05), while R and K values in thromboelastograms in the former were notably smaller than those in the latter (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the whole blood low-shear viscosity, whole blood high-shear viscosity, and plasma viscosity in observation group were remarkably lower than those in control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the observation group exhibited shorter prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (p < 0.05) and a higher fibrinogen (Fib) level (p < 0.05) than the control group. At 6 hours and 12 hours after intervention and before operation, the hemoglobin level in observation group was markedly higher than that in control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the dosages of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets among blood products during operation in the observation group were evidently lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05), and the number of cases of hemorrhage, pulmonary infection, coagulation dysfunction, and paraplegia after operation in the former was distinctly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the observation group had an obviously smaller postoperative 24 hours drainage volume (p < 0.05) as well as shorter postoperative mechanical ventilation time and ICU treatment time than control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS For patients undergoing cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation, platelet-rich plasma separation and reinfusion technology can effectively ensure platelet activation state and function, reduce blood viscosity, ensure stable coagulation function, elevate hemoglobin level and decrease inflammatory reaction, and perioperative allogeneic blood infusion, with fewer adverse reactions in treatment, thus efficaciously facilitating the post-operative recovery of patients.
Efficacy and Safety of Estradiol Valerate/Dienogest for the Management of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Clinical Trial
Journal of Women's Health (2002). 2018;27((10):):1225-1232
BACKGROUND To investigate the efficacy and safety of estradiol valerate (EV)/dienogest (DNG) for the management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in Asian and non-Asian women desiring contraception. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this multicenter, double-blind, phase III study, women were randomized 2:1 to receive EV/DNG or placebo tablets daily for seven 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was the absolute change in menstrual blood loss (MBL) volume between the run-in and efficacy phases (90 days each). Secondary endpoints included the proportion of women with successful treatment (i.e., no episodes of MBL ≥80 mL and a decrease of <50% in MBL), percent change in MBL from the run-in phase, and change in hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. RESULTS Of the 341 women (mean age 34.7 +/- 7.7 years; 309 Asians, 32 non-Asians) randomized, 270 completed the study. Mean reduction in MBL volume from run-in phase was significantly greater with EV/DNG than placebo (366.75 mL vs. 149.14 mL; p < 0.0001), with approximately 52% and 12% of women, respectively, experiencing successful treatment. Percent decrease in MBL volume from the run-in phase was significantly greater with EV/DNG than placebo (63.5% vs. 24.8%; p < 0.0001). Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased with EV/DNG compared with placebo. Study drug-related AEs were reported in 16.3% and 8.2% of women with EV/DNG and placebo, respectively, none of which were of severe intensity. CONCLUSIONS EV/DNG may be a safe and effective option in the treatment of HMB in Asian and non-Asian women who desire contraception.
Clinical evaluations of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with platelet rich plasma
Chung-Kuo Hsiu Fu Chung Chien Wai Ko Tsa Chih/Chinese Journal of Reparative & Reconstructive Surgery. 31(4):410-416, 2017 Apr 01.. 2017;31((4):):410-416
Objective: To investigate the clinical outcomes of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: Between August 2014 and August 2016, 42 patients with ACL ruptures who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were randomly divided into 2 groups: 21 patients received graft soaked with PRP (trial group) and 21 patients received routine graft in ACL reconstruction (control group). Because 6 patients failed to be followed up, 17 patients of trial group and 19 of control group were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, side, injury reason, disease duration, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), Lysholm score, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) activity scores between 2 groups ( P>0.05). VAS score, Lysholm score, and IKDC activity scores were used to evaluate pain and function at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. Further, second arthroscopy and MRI examination were performed at 12 months postoperatively. Results: The patients in both groups were followed up 3 to 12 months with an average of 9.83 months. The VAS score, Lysholm score, and IKDC activity scores were significantly improved at 3 and 12 months after operation in 2 groups ( P<0.05), and the scores of trial group were significantly better than those of control group at 3 months ( P<0.05), but no significant difference was found between 2 groups at 12 months ( P>0.05). No complications of effusion, infection, and allergy were observed in 2 groups during follow-up. MRI showed good position of ACL grafts and good signal quality of the graft in the majority of the cases. However, mixed hyperintense and presence of synovial fluid at the femoral bone-tendon graft interface were found in 3 patients of trial group and 4 patients of control group, indicating poor remodeling ligamentation. MRI score was 3.53+/-1.13 in trial group and was 3.21+/-0.92 in control group, showing no significant difference ( t=0.936, P=0.356). The second arthroscopy examination showed ligament remodeling score was higher in trial group than control group ( t=3.248, P=0.014), but no significant difference was found in synovial coverage score and the incidence of cartilage repair ( t=2.190, P=0.064; chi2=0.090, P=0.764). Conclusion: PRP application in allograft ACL reconstruction can improve knee function and relieve pain after operation, which may also accelerate graft remodeling.