ABO blood group influence COVID-19 infection: a meta-analysis
Journal of infection in developing countries. 2021;15(12):1801-1807
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have linked the relationship between ABO blood group and COVID-19 infection. However, existing evidence is preliminary and controversial. This meta-analysis sought to identify studies that describe COVID-19 and ABO blood group. METHODOLOGY A literature search was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science, MedRxiv, BioRxiv and Google Scholar databases. Members of cases and controls were extracted from collected studies. Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated and interpreted from extracted data. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also applied to confirm our discovery. RESULTS Total 13,600 patients and 3,445,047 controls were included in the study. Compared to other ABO blood group, blood group O was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.66-0.84), while blood group A and AB was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.10-1.41; OR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.23, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, the relationship between blood group A, O and COVID-19 infection remained stable among Chinese, European and Eastern Mediterranean populations. In American population, blood groups B was linked with increased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.09-1.35). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggested that individuals with blood types A and AB are more susceptible to COVID-19, while people with blood type O are less susceptible to infection. More research is needed to clarify the precise role of the ABO blood group in COVID-19 infection to address the global question.
Prognostic Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in Patients with COVID-19: A Diagnostic Test Accuracy Meta-Analysis
The journal of Tehran Heart Center. 2021;16(1):1-14
Background: Several reports have determined that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are common complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and lead them to poor outcomes. CVD biomarkers have, thus, great potential to be used as prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to determine the accuracy of CVD biomarkers for the prognosis of the COVID-19 patient's outcome via a diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) meta-analysis. Methods: Until September 30, 2020, we searched Web of Sciences, Scopus, and MEDLINE/PubMed databases to obtain related papers. The summary points and lines were calculated using bivariate/HSROC model. As outcomes, we considered critical conditions and mortality. Results: A total of 17 659 patients from 33 studies were included. Five biomarkers, namely increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK), D-dimer, and thrombocytopenia, met the inclusion criteria. Our results indicated that LDH and cTnI had good accuracy for the prognosis of critical condition (AUC(HSROC)=0.83 and 0.80, respectively), while LDH, cTnI, and D-dimer had acceptable accuracy (AUC(HSROC)=0.74, 0.71, and 0.72, respectively) for the prognosis of mortality. LDH and D-dimer had high sensitivity, whereas cTnI had high specificity. The other biomarkers did not have acceptable accuracy. Significant publication bias was found for D-dimer (P=0.053). Conclusion: Among CVD biomarkers, LDH and cTnI had good accuracy for the prognosis of critical outcomes and acceptable accuracy for the prognosis of mortality, without publication bias. Given their different sensitivities and specificities, we recommend the use of these 2 biomarkers concomitantly.
A randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of regenerated and non-regenerated oxidized cellulose gauze for the secondary treatment of local bleeding in patients undergoing hepatic resection
Annals of surgical treatment and research. 2021;100(4):193-199
PURPOSE Oxidized cellulose is available in many forms, but manufactured using either a regenerated or non-regenerated process. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 2 different hemostatic agents for the treatment of local bleeding in patients undergoing hepatic resection. METHODS This was a monocentric, parallel-group, randomized, and controlled clinical trial to compare oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze (ORCG) with oxidized non-regenerated cellulose gauze (ONRCG) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. The primary endpoint was the time to hemostasis at the target bleeding site. The secondary endpoints were the postoperative drainage volume on the first 2 days after surgery and the hospital stay. RESULTS There was no significant difference between the ORCG and ONRCG groups in time to hemostasis from column analysis (238.8 ± 121.6 seconds vs. 193.7 ± 85.3 seconds, P = 0.068), and there were no differences in the rates of hemostatic success between the 2 groups at 120 seconds (18.4% vs. 24.3%; odds ratio [OR], 0.703; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.231-2.136) and 300 seconds (71.1% vs. 89.2%; OR, 0.298; 95% CI, 0.085-1.041). However, the ONRCG group was superior to the ORCG group in hemostasis according to the survival analysis (log-rank test, P = 0.044). Moreover, there were also no significant differences between the 2 groups in postoperative drainage volume on the first 2 days (P = 0.436, P = 0.381) and hospital stay (P = 0.537, P = 0.200). CONCLUSION ONRCG was not inferior to ORCG as a hemostatic agent in patients undergoing liver resection.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on haemorrhagic stroke admissions: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2021;11(12):e050559
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE COVID-19 pandemic, a global health crisis, is disrupting the present medical environment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke hospitalisations, especially haemorrhagic stroke. METHODS The EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, Medline, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar electronic databases were searched for all relevant studies. Two researchers independently screened the studies, extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Odds ratio (OR), total events, OR and 95% CI were considered as the effect size. A fixed-effects model was used to pool the study-specific estimate. The present study was performed by using Review Manager (V.5.3.0) software. We assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS A total of 17 studies with 14 445 cases were included. Overall, the number of stroke admissions is lower in the pandemic period versus the control period (6252 vs 8193). The difference of haemorrhagic stroke is significant, with 1233 of 6252 cases in the pandemic group and 1621 of 8193 cases in the control group. Intracerebral haemorrhage is present in 461 of 1948 cases in the pandemic group and 618 of 2734 cases in the control group. As for subarachnoid haemorrhage, the difference between the two groups is significant, with 70 of 985 cases in the pandemic group and 202 of 1493 cases in the control group. CONCLUSIONS The number of stroke admissions is lower in the pandemic period compared with the control period. There is a higher rate of haemorrhagic stroke in the pandemic period. Subgroup analysis identifies a significant increase in the occurrence of intracerebral haemorrhage in the pandemic period. Due to limited data and the impact of a single article, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on subarachnoid haemorrhage is unclear.
EXPRESS: Safety and Efficacy of Remote Ischemic Conditioning for the Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial
International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society. 2021;:17474930211006580
Background Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) can promote hematoma resolution, attenuate brain edema, and improve neurological recovery in animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Aims This study aimed to evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of RIC in patients with ICH.Methods In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, 40 subjects with supratentorial ICH presenting within 24-48 hours of onset were randomly assigned to receive medical therapy plus RIC for consecutive 7 days or medical therapy alone. The primary safety outcome was neurological deterioration within 7 days of enrollment, and the primary efficacy outcome was the changes of hematoma volume on CT images. Other outcomes included hematoma resolution rate at 7 d ([hematoma volume at 7 d â hematoma volume at baseline]/hematoma volume at baseline), perihematomal edema (PHE), and functional outcome at 90 days. Results The mean age was 59.3Â±11.7 years and hematoma volume was 13.9Â±4.5 mL. No subjects experienced neurological deterioration within 7 days of enrollment, and no subject died or experienced RIC-associated adverse events during the study period. At baseline, the hematoma volumes were 14.19Â±5.07 mL in the control group and 13.55Â±3.99 mL in the RIC group, and they were 8.54Â±3.99 mL and 6.95Â±2.71 mL at 7 days after enrollment, respectively, not a significant difference (p>0.05 each). The hematoma resolution rate in the RIC group (49.25Â±9.17%) was significantly higher than in the control group (41.92Â±9.14%; MD, 7.3%; 95% CI, 1.51% to 13.16%; p=0.015). The absolute PHE volume was 17.27Â±8.34 mL in the control group and 12.92Â±7.30 mL in the RIC group at 7 days after enrollment, not a significant between-group difference (p=0.087), but the relative PHE in the RIC group (1.77Â±0.39) was significantly lower than in the control group (2.02Â±0.27; MD, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.39-0.47; p=0.023). At 90-day follow-up, 13 subjects (65%) in the RIC group and 12 subjects (60%) in the control group achieved favorable functional outcomes (mRS scoreâ¤3), not a significant between-group difference (p=0.744).Conclusions Repeated daily RIC for consecutive 7 days was safe and well-tolerated in patients with ICH, and it may be able to improve hematoma resolution rate and reduce relative PHE. However, effects RIC on the absolute hematoma and PHE volume and functional outcomes in this patient population need further investigations.Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03930940.
Multiple intravenous tranexamic acid doses in total knee arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled study
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2021;22(1):425
BACKGROUND We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of multiple doses of intravenous tranexamic acid (IV-TXA) on perioperative blood loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had undergone primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS For this single-center, single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 10 male and 87 female participants with RA, aged 50-75 years, who underwent unilateral primary TKA were recruited. The patients received one dose of 1 g IV-TXA 10 min before skin incision, followed by articular injection of 1.5 g tranexamic acid after cavity suture during the surgery. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) into two groups and received an additional single dose of IV-TXA (1 g) for 3 h (group A) or three doses of IV-TXA (1 g) for 3, 6, and 12 h (group B) postoperatively. Primary outcomes were total blood loss (TBL), hidden blood loss (HBL), and maximum hemoglobin (Hb) level decrease. Secondary outcomes were transfusion rate and D-dimer levels. All parameters were measured postoperatively during inpatient hospital stay. RESULTS The mean TBL, HBL, and maximum Hb level decrease in group B (506.1 ± 227.0 mL, 471.6 ± 224.0 mL, and 17.5 ± 7.7 g/L, respectively) were significantly lower than those in group A (608.8 ± 244.8 mL, P = 0.035; 574.0 ± 242.3 mL, P = 0.033; and 23.42 ± 9.2 g/L, P = 0.001, respectively). No episode of transfusion occurred. The D-dimer level was lower in group B than in group A on postoperative day 1 (P < 0.001), and the incidence of thromboembolic events was similar between the groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION In patients with RA, three doses of postoperative IV-TXA further facilitated HBL and Hb level decrease without increasing the incidence of adverse events in a short period after TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1900025013 ).
Effect of Multiple Doses of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid on Perioperative Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Study
Orthopaedic surgery. 2021;13(1):126-133
OBJECTIVE To identify the efficacy and safety of multiple doses of intravenous tranexamic acid (IV-TXA) following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a tourniquet. METHODS This is a single-blind randomized controlled study that recruited osteoarthritis patients who had undergone primary unilateral TKA from May 2019 to May 2020 at our medical center. A total of 300 patients were randomly divided into three groups to receive: one dose (1 g) of IV-TXA before skin incision combined with one dose (1.5 g) of intra-articular tranexamic acid（IA-TXA) followed by a single dose of IV-TXA (1 g) for 3 h (group A); two doses of IV-TXA (1 g) for 3 and 6 h (group B); or three doses of IV-TXA (1 g) for 3, 6, and 12 h (group C) postoperatively. TKA with a tourniquet was performed by the same surgical team. The primary outcomes were total blood cell loss (TBL), hidden blood loss (HBL), maximum hemoglobin (Hb) drop, and transfusion rate. Secondary outcomes were levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer, and the incidence of postoperative complications. One-way analysis of variance, subgroup analysis, and multivariate correlation analysis were used to calculate the differences among the three groups. RESULTS The study included 56 male and 244 female patients aged 60-80 years. The mean TBL, the mean HBL, and the maximum Hb drop in group C (471.2 ± 190.6 mL, 428.4 ± 190.3 mL, and 21.2 ± 3.8 g/L, respectively) were significantly lower than those in groups B (563.4 ± 224.6 mL, P = 0.030; 519.9 ± 226.4 mL, P = 0.033; and 23.2 ± 4.1 g/L, P = 0.001, respectively), and A (651.6 ± 254.1 mL, P < 0.001; 607.1 ± 254.3 mL, P < 0.001; and 25.1 ± 4.3 g/L, P < 0.001, respectively). No transfusions were required. The postoperative acute inflammatory reaction was less problematic for patients in Group C, and the incidence of thromboembolic events was similar among the groups (P > 0.05). In addition, there were positive correlations between the HBL and the tourniquet inflation time (r = 0.844, P < 0.001). Similarly, the level of CRP on POD1 (r = 0.393, P < 0.001) and POD3 (r = 0.149, P = 0.010), and the level of D-dimer on POD1 (r = 0.382, P < 0.001) were positively correlated with the HBL. CONCLUSION Three doses of postoperative IV-TXA decreased blood loss and diminished the postoperative inflammatory and fibrinolytic response more than a single dose or two doses in elderly patients following TKA without increasing the incidence of adverse events.
Intravenous versus oral omeprazole on patients with high risk bleeding peptic ulcers: A prospective randomized clinical trial protocol
BACKGROUND Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the rate of rebleeding following endoscopic hemostatic therapy in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. This study compares the efficacy of oral omeprazole vs intravenous omeprazole in decrease of rebleeding of peptic ulcer patients. METHOD The present study was authorized by the local research ethics committee of Jiangjin District Central Hospital (2020120987) and informed consent was obtained from all patients. All adult patients who were admitted to medical emergency rooms of Jiangjin District Central Hospital due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding (as evidenced by hematemesis, melena or hematochezia) were considered for inclusion in the study. Endoscopy was performed within 24 hours after admission. Patients older than 18 years with successful endoscopic therapy of high risk ulcers [defined as active bleeding (Forrest IA, IB), non-bleeding visible vessel (NBVV, Forrest IIA) or adherent clots (Forrest IIB)] were enrolled. Patients with low risk ulcers (clean base, ulcers with a simple washable clot), suspicious malignant ulcer, bleeding tendency, uremia, liver cirrhosis, Mallory Weiss tear or already on PPI as an outpatient were excluded from study. All were managed endoscopically by injecting 5-30 ml of epinephrine (diluted 1:10000) around the ulcer crater. Cavitations or flattening of bleeding vessel and disappearance of NBVV was considered as established homeostasis. A biopsy was taken from antrum for evaluating Helicobacter pylori infection. Patient with unsuccessful endoscopic therapy were not enrolled and were referred to general surgeon. Information on demography, history of previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding, NSAID or ASA ingestion, ulcer location, bleeding stigmata and blood transfusion volume at entry were recorded in all patients. In the oral omeprazole group, the patients received 40 mg omeprazole orally twice daily for 72 hours. In intravenous omeprazole group, they received omeprazole 80 mg bolus and then 8 mg/hour infusion for 48-72 hours. Then, all patients received omeprazole 20 mg orally for 30 days. On the day of discharge Helicobacter pylori infected patients received standard regimens. RESULTS Figure 1 showed the primary and secondary end points. DISCUSSION Intravenous administration of PPIs has limitations. They are expensive, require a dedicated intravenous line, need nursing supervision and hospital admission. So, it would be reasonable to prescribe oral PPIs to patients with high risk bleeding ulcers provided that it is as effective as its intravenous counterpart. Oral PPIs have a high bioavailability. Its effect initiates one hour after ingestion and the maximal plasma concentration is achieved after 2-3 hours. However, there are few studies comparing oral and intravenous PPI in decreasing risk of rebleeding in peptic ulcer patients. More high quality randomized controlled trials are still necessary. REGISTRATION NUMBER researchregistry 6588.
A Systematic Review of Minimally Invasive Treatments for Uterine Fibroid-Related Bleeding
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2021
Newer minimally invasive techniques provide treatment options for symptomatic uterine fibroids while allowing uterus preservation. The objective of this review was to analyze the efficacy of uterine-preserving, minimally invasive treatment modalities in reducing fibroid-related bleeding. A comprehensive search was conducted of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to July 2020. English-language publications that evaluated premenopausal women with fibroid-related bleeding symptoms before and after treatment were considered. Randomized controlled trials were assessed for bias with the established Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0 and observational studies were assessed for quality under the New Castle-Ottawa Scale guidelines. Eighty-four studies were included in the review, including 10 randomized controlled trials and 74 observational studies. Six studies on myomectomy demonstrated overall bleeding symptom improvement in up to 95.9% of patients, though there was no significant difference between mode of myomectomy. Forty-one studies on uterine artery embolization reported significant reduction of fibroid-related bleeding, with symptomatic improvement in 79 to 98.5% of patients. Three studies suggested that embolization may be superior to myomectomy in reducing fibroid-related bleeding. Six studies reported that laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy led to greater reduction of bleeding than myomectomy alone. Fifteen studies demonstrated significantly reduced bleeding severity after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Additional research is needed to establish the superiority of these modalities over one another. Long-term evidence is limited in current literature for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, cryomyolysis, microwave ablation, and laser ablation.
Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis
European radiology. 2021
OBJECTIVES To assess whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), using conventional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging as a reference standard, is sufficiently accurate to differentiate intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS On January 20, 2021, we searched the PubMed Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the risk of bias and applicability. Meta-analyses were performed using a bivariate random-effects model. To explore sources of heterogeneity, meta-regression analyses were performed. Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test was used to assess publication bias. RESULTS A total of 7 studies (269 patients, 269 focal areas) were included. The pooled mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DECT in identifying intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke were 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.96), 1 (95% CI 0.86 to 1), and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 1), respectively. This evidence was of moderate certainty due to the risk of bias. Higgin's I-squared for study heterogeneity was observed for the pooled sensitivity (I(2) = 78.88%) and pooled specificity (I(2) = 82.12%). Moreover, Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test revealed no publication bias (p = 0.38). CONCLUSION DECT shows excellent accuracy and specificity in differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, there was substantial and moderate heterogeneity among the studies. Future large-scale, prospective cohort studies are warranted to validate our findings. KEY POINTS • Dual-energy computed tomography shows excellent accuracy and specificity in differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from contrast extravasation after endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. • Via meta-regression analysis, we found various possible covariates, including the publication date, image analysis, index test time, time of follow-up imaging, and reference standard judgment, that had an important effect on the heterogeneity. • There were no concerns regarding applicability in any of the included studies.